PEDAGOGY OF SCIENCE [Teaching of Science]

PEDAGOGY OF SCIENCE [Teaching of Science]


PEDAGOGY OF SCIENCE or teaching of science subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

Science and technology are playing an important role in our lives. They have become an integral part of our social and cultural life. Various activities are controlled and governed by science.


WHAT IS SCIENCE?

Science has been derived from the Latin word “Scientia” which means knowledge. It is a systematized body of knowledge that may pertain to any subject or field of life.

In simple words, science is the investigation and interpretation of natural phenomena which occur in our daily life.

“Science is an interconnected series of concepts and conceptual schemes that have developed as a result of experimentation and observation and are fruitful of further experimentation and observation” - James B. Conant.

Science is both a body of knowledge and the process of acquiring refined knowledge.

The two main approaches of Science are:

  1. Science as a Product
  2. Science as a Process

NATURE OF SCIENCE

Joseph J. Schwab (1964) and Bruner (1962) have explained the nature of science in technical terms. According to them, the nature of science comprises.

  1. Substantive structure of science
  2. Syntactical structure of science

The Substantiate structure of science represents the major conceptual schemes which constitute the basic knowledge used in science.

The syntactical structure of science is concerned with the so-called processes of scientific inquiry, means by which scientific knowledge is acquired and verified.

Recently a third dimension to the nature of science has been added which has been recognized by workers. This is known as the social aspect of science.


Characteristics of Science

  1. Science is empirical.
  2. Science grows through the processes of science.
  3. Scientific knowledge is replicable
  4. Scientific knowledge is holistic
  5. Scientific knowledge is tentative in nature.
  6. Scientific knowledge is unique.
  7. Scientific knowledge is humanistic
  8. Science has its own values of objectivity, rationality, neutrality, and humanity

INTERDISCIPLINARY APPROACH IN SCIENCE

All the branches of science are interdependent. There are many areas in science which are common to all science subjects. Because of the reciprocal relationship between various subjects, the inter-disciplinary approach or correlation is being emphasized.

In physical science teaching, we cannot confine ourselves with physics and chemistry alone, we are to combine and correlate physics and chemistry with other subjects, and with the learner environment to avoid rote memory and artificial learning. This is what is known as an interdisciplinary approach in science teaching.

The interdisciplinary approach can be discussed under 3 headings:

  1. Correlation of science subjects with one another
  2. Correlation of science with other school subjects
  3. Correlation of science with life and environment

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

‘Taxonomy’ is a term derived from two Greek words ‘taxis’ meaning ‘arrangement’ and ‘nomos’ meaning ‘law’. In this derivative sense, taxonomy means ‘orderly arrangement’.

A number of attempts have been made by experts in the field of classification of educational objectives. Perhaps the most widely used system of classification of objectives is the one prepared by a group of college and university teachers and later reported inTaxonomy of Educational Objectives” (1956) edited by Benjamin S. Bloom.

They classified the educational objectives into three broad categories or domains.

  1. Cognitive Domain (knowing)
  2. Affective Domain (feeling)
  3. Psycho-Motor Domain (doing)

Besides, the above classification, each domain can be further split up into major categories which are also hierarchical. The major categories are as follows.

CATEGORIES IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN

  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation

CATEGORIES IN THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN

  1. Receiving
  2. Responding
  3. Valuing
  4. Organizing
  5. Characterizing

CATEGORIES IN THE PSYCHO-MOTOR DOMAIN

  1. Perception
  2. Imitation
  3. Manipulation
  4. Precision
  5. Articulation
  6. Naturalization

AIMS OF TEACHING SCIENCE

The whole process of teaching of science directs the students towards these objectives. These objectives are guided by the content materials of the curriculum, lessons, and topics.

Up to the secondary stage of education, we have three stages,

  1. Primary stage
  2. Junior High School or Lower Secondary stage of education consists of classes VI toVIII
  3. The secondary stage of education consists of classes IX to XII

Primary Stage of Education and the Objectives of the Teaching of Science

  • Development and training of the power of observation
  • Knowledge of the relationship between physical and social environment
  • Objectives with regard to character and behavior
  • To develop the habits of personal, family, and community cleanliness
  • Importance of science in life
  • Knowledge of the casual relationship
  • Development of practical outlook

Objectives of the Teaching of Science for Junior High School Classes

  • Development of knowledge and skill for social life
  • Development of the power of reasoning
  • Practical use
  • Development of the quantitative sense and the capacity to solve problems
  • Numerical Sense
  • Economic efficiency and knowledge about society and the natural environment

Objectives of Teaching of Science at Higher Secondary Stage of Education

  • Development of the psychological aptitude and interests
  • To prepare and equip for higher education
  • Economic efficiency and capacity to earn a livelihood

PLANNING

Planning is important in every walk of life. The success of a piece of work is ensured if the work is properly planned.

Just as planning is important in our daily life, planning is of unique importance in the teaching-learning process. For successful and effective teaching, planning is the first and the most important step.

The teacher should know beforehand ‘what’ to teach and ‘how’ to teach. Planning leads to systematic work and helps to avoid wastage.

The plan for each unit is known as the unit plan.

A unit is a group of lesson plans that covers a particular topic. The planning for a particular period of 20 or 25 minutes is known as a lesson plan. The lesson plan helps the teacher to realize the instructional objectives. A teacher can bring about the direction by specifying objectives and providing suitable learning experiences.


UNIT PLAN

When the subject matter in the textbook is not adequately grouped and presented, the teacher has to reorganize the subject matter into suitable units.

According to Preston, “A unit is as large a block of related subject-matter as can be over-viewed by the learner”.

A unit plan is a detailed outline for a series of interrelated lessons on a selected topic of study which lasts two to four weeks.


LESSON PLANNING

After planning for the unit, we are to concentrate on the lesson plan.

The lesson plan is the teacher’s mental and emotional visualization of class room activities.

Carter V. Good defines a lesson plan as, “a teaching outline of the important points of a lesson arranged in order in which they are to be presented. It may include objectives, points to be asked, references to materials, assignments etc.”
In the words of Lester B. Stands, “A lesson plan is actually a plan of action”.

Advantages of Lesson Plan

  1. It helps the teacher to be systematic and orderly in his teaching process.
  2. It helps to face challenging questions in the class.
  3. It builds up a definite aim for each day’s work.
  4. It gives confidence and self-reliance.
  5. It helps in finishing the lesson in the allotted time.

Herbartian Steps or Steps Involved in a Lesson Plan

Six formal steps are suggested by J.F. Herbart in lesson planning. The steps are known as Herbartian steps. They are:

  1. Preparation
  2. Presentation
  3. Comparison
  4. Generalization
  5. Application
  6. Recapitulation

MICRO TEACHING

Among the different practices of teacher training, Microteaching is an important technique, which imparts intensive training in the component skills of teaching to the teacher trainees.

MC. Knight (1931): Micro teaching is a scaled down teaching encounter designed to develop new skills and refine old ones.
Passi, B.K. and Lalitha, M.S. (1936): Micro teaching is a training technique, which requires student teachers to teach a single concept using specified teaching skill to a small number of students in a short duration of time.

Steps in Micro teaching Cycle

  1. Planning
  2. Teaching
  3. Feedback
  4. Re-plan
  5. Re-teach
  6. Re-feedback

TEACHING SKILLS

Teaching activity involves different skills that are essential to teaching effectively.

Classification of teaching skills

  • Motivational skills
  • Presenting and communication skills
  • Questioning skills
  • Skills of small group and individual instruction
  • Developing pupil thinking
  • Evaluative skills
  • Classroom management and discipline

MICROTEACHING SKILLS IN SCIENCE

  1. Reinforcement
  2. Stimulus Variation
  3. Explaining
  4. Probing Questioning
  5. Demonstration
  6. The skill of using Black Board

GENERAL METHODS OF TEACHING SCIENCE

Methods of teaching science can be classified broadly into two types

  1. Teacher-Centered
  2. Pupil-Centered

Teacher-Centered Teaching

  • Teacher-Centered teaching is a teacher concerning methods of teaching.
  • Here teacher’s convenience is considered mainly, where the students are just passive recipients of knowledge.
  • The teaching environment is very much formalized and the teacher occupies a central position in the classroom.

Teacher-Centered Methods of Teaching:

  • Lecture Demonstration
  • Lecture cum Demonstration

Pupil Centered Teaching:

The main concern in pupil-centered teaching is the pupil himself.

The purpose is to develop in the learner skills and abilities in independent learning and problem-solving.

The classroom climate is flexible here and the teacher acts as a facilitator to the students.

Pupil Centered Methods of Teaching:

  • Heuristic
  • Assignment
  • Laboratory
  • Discussion
  • Discussion
  • Project

SCIENCE CURRICULUM

Curriculum originates from the Latin word ‘currere’ which means ‘to run’. It is, therefore, defined as a course to be run for reaching a certain goal’.

Curriculum acts as a pivot in organizing educational effort on some manageable basis and is undoubtedly the heart of the school and all that goes with it.

Curriculum is a tool in the hands of the Artist (the teacher) to mould his material (the pupil) according to his ideal (objective) in his studio (the school)” - Cunningham

DEFECTS IN THE PRESENT CURRICULUM

  1. It is bookish and stereotyped and lays emphasis on rote memory.
  2. It is not in conformity with the aims and objectives of the teaching of science.
  3. It is examination-oriented.
  4. The concept of general science is out of real life.
  5. The heavy syllabus burdens the young mind with dead information.
  6. It is not based on the capabilities and interests of the students.
  7. It is devoid of scientific attitude and hobbies.

PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION

  1. The Principles of Child Centeredness
  2. The Principle of Community Centeredness
  3. The Principle of Integration
  4. Conservation Principle
  5. Creative Principle
  6. Principle of Activity Centeredness
  7. Forward-Looking Principle
  8. Principle of Elasticity and Variety
  9. Principle of Totality and Experience
  10. Principle of Scientific Thinking

FACTORS THAT AFFECT CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION

  • The students
  • The teacher
  • The textbooks
  • The need for society
  • The tools and equipment’s
  • Examination and evaluation
  • Advancements in science
  • Political force
  • The geographic factors

SCIENCE TEACHER

Science is now one of the compulsory subjects in secondary schools, because of its multifarious values. Good science teaching is one of the best ways to create and develop a scientific attitude and thinking among citizens and workers.

The science teacher should always keep in mind that the ultimate purpose is to educate the students through the teaching of science. Because science is no doubt, full of facts, principles, and concepts, but its teaching is not just giving out information about them.

Besides motivating and presenting things in an interesting way, the teacher must be able to create situations for the students where they have to think, do, and reason out. Each pupil must be involved in the learning process because of learning results from the active involvement of the learner.


ACADEMIC AND PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATIONS OF SCIENCE TEACHER:

Besides having personal qualities, a teacher should also fulfill the following broad requirements.

  1. Academic qualifications.
  2. Professional Education or Training in modern methods and techniques.
  3. Practical knowledge of child psychology and process for learning.

Academic Qualification

The basic academic qualifications laid down by the Education departments of different states are at least B.Sc., to teach middle and High School classes and M.Sc., for senior secondary classes.

Professional Education or Training in Modern Methods and Techniques

the science teacher should be trained in;
  • Lesson and unit planning
  • Preparation of instructional material.
  • Laboratory management and organization.
  • Care, maintenance, repair, and improvisation of science apparatus and equipment.
  • The latest method of teaching.
  • Maintenance and use of science libraries.
  • Evaluation Technique
  • Science club activities and district and state science fairs.

Practical Knowledge of Child Psychology and the Process of Learning

  1. Every science teacher should be able to deal with the students according to their needs.
  2. He should follow the psychological principles that ‘No two individuals are alike’.
  3. He must be able to cater to individual differences in his class.
  4. He should be able to lead the students according to their capabilities and interests.
  5. He should also be ready to help them whenever and wherever necessary.
  6. Besides this, a science teacher should have great patience and the ability to switch from one aspect to another.
  7. A Science teacher should frequently evaluate his teaching for improving and identifying his weak area.

SOME SUGGESTIONS TO SCIENCE TEACHERS

  • The first requisite for the science teacher is that he should have a thorough grasp of the subject matter that he has to teach.
  • Preferably he should plan his lesson before-hard.
  • He should not expect that he knows the answer to all the questions that the children ask him.

SCIENCE LABORATORY

The laboratory is commonly regarded as the heart of science teaching. The science laboratory provides opportunities for the students to understand the concepts and different ideas of science.

Sood has defined, “Science laboratory is the central place where students get an opportunity to conduct experiments and search principles of science”.

The laboratory helps in the development of objective reasoning and thinking, skills of experimentation, observation, problem-solving, and scientific attitudes among the students.


Location and Types of Science Laboratories

  • A science laboratory should be located preferably on the school building if possible so that there is no disturbance of the laboratory.
  • The open space outside the laboratory will be of much use to conduct some of the experiments outside, in sunlight.
  • Biology and general science laboratory should have a north-south orientation to provide adequate sunlight exposure.

There are three important plans for the science laboratory.

  • Lecture room - cum - laboratory plan
  • Lecture - cum - laboratory plan
  • These two plans are a combined one with a lecture room and a laboratory attached side by side. Half of the whole laboratory is used as a lecture room and half as a laboratory to arrange practical classes for one or more subjects.
  • All-purpose laboratory: The whole laboratory is used for all purposes namely for lecture and laboratory work.

CLASSIFICATION OF TEACHING AIDS

  1. Visual aids
  2. Audio-visual aids
  3. Audio aids
  4. Activity aids

Visual Aids

These aids involve the use of the sense of sight and hence called as visual aids.

In this type following aids are considered.

  1. Chalkboard
  2. Charts
  3. Graphs
  4. Diagrams
  5. Models
  6. Flannelgraph
  7. Epidiascope

Audio Aids

These aids involve the use of the sense of hearing and include radio, gramophone, and tape-recorder.

  • Radio
  • Tape recorder

Audio-Visual Aids

These aids involve the use of the sense of hearing and seeing. These include

  1. Films
  2. Television

Activity Aids

In this type of aids, we include all those teaching aids in which the learner is required to be engaged in some useful activity. These include

  • Aquarium
  • Nature study garden

AUDIO - VISUAL AIDS

According to Burton, audio-visual aids are those sensory objects or images which initiate or stimulate and reinforce learning.
According to Kinder, S. James: Audio-visual aids are anything by means of which learning process may be encouraged or carried on through the sense of hearing or sense of sight.

Principles in the use of audio-visual aids

  • Principles of Preparation
  • Principle of Selection
  • Principle of Proper Presentation
  • Principle of Response
  • Principle of Physical Control

Essential Qualities of Audio-Visual Aids

  1. Accurate
  2. Relevance
  3. Realistic
  4. Comprehensible
  5. Simple
  6. Cost
  7. Availability
  8. Preparation
  9. Big enough
  10. Location
  11. Evaluation
  12. Appropriate

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY IN SCIENCE

Information and communication technology means the implementation of different branches of technology in the process of the communication of information.

In a broader sense, ICT is taken to refer to the whole set of enabling technology concerned with communication, manipulation of information (hardware and software), networking, data storage, the transmission of voice and video.

Web Based Education Commission (2000) US Kerry’s Report: ICT can be defined as the use of hardware and software for efficient management of information. i.e., storage, retrieval, processing, communication, diffusion and sharing of information for social economic and cultural upliftment.

E-Learning

An innovative application of computers in the teaching and learning process is e-learning. E-learning may be network-based, Internet-based which includes text, video, audio, animation, and virtual environments.


EVALUATION

Evaluation is defined as a process of collecting evidence of behavioral changes and judging the directions and extents of such changes.

  • Evaluation is inevitable in the teaching-learning process.
  • It is as inevitable in classroom teaching as it is in all fields of activity when judgments need to be made, however simple or complex the consideration involved.
  • An effective decision-making process involves evaluation.
  • Evaluation helps teachers to make better evaluative judgments.

Types of Evaluation

  1. Placement Evaluation
  2. Formative Evaluation
  3. Summative Evaluation
  4. Diagnostic Evaluation

Placement Evaluation

Placement evaluation is concerned with the students’ entry-level performance and focuses on the following. The aim of placement evaluation is to determine the position in the sequence of learning activities and the mode of instruction that is to benefit the pupil the most.


Formative Evaluation

The gathering of the data during the time of the program for the purpose of guiding the developmental process is formative evaluation.


Summative Evaluation

The term summative refers to assigning a grade for a student’s achievement at the end of a term, course, or instructional program. Therefore, making an overall assessment or decision with the instructional program is a summative evaluation


ACHIEVEMENT TEST IN SCIENCE

Achievement tests constitute an important tool for evaluation. It is necessary for the teacher to know how far the students have attained in a particular subject.

In the school evaluation program, various forms of achievement tests are used to measure the accomplishment of the students.

Any test that measures the attainments or accomplishments of an individual after a period of training or learning is called an achievement test”.


Purpose of Achievement tests

  • To measure whether students possess the pre-requisite skills needed to succeed in any unit or whether the students have achieved the objective of the planned instruction.
  • To monitor students’ learning and to provide ongoing feedback to both students and teachers during the teaching-learning process.
  • To identify the students’ learning difficulties - whether persistent or recurring.
  • To assign grades.

Types of Achievement tests

Achievement tests as used in school are of two types:
  • Teacher-made achievement tests
    • Oral tests
    • Written or paper and pencil tests
      • Long answer or essay type
      • Short answer type
      • Objective type
  • Standardized achievement tests
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