KNOWLEDGE AND CURRICULUM

KNOWLEDGE AND CURRICULUM

Knowledge is habitually defined as a belief that is true and justified. The philosopher Plato famously defined knowledge as "justified true belief".


Knowledge and Curriculum subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION

There are three important foundations of education are:

  1. Ontological (related to the nature of knowledge)
  2. Epistemic (related to the theory of knowledge)
  3. Axiological (related to values)

Of these three, the epistemic foundation is the most fundamental one.


KNOWLEDGE

Chamber of dictionary defines knowledge
  • As the fact of knowing,
  • Information or what is known;
  • The whole of what can be learned or found out.

The concept of knowledge generally refers to the facts, concepts, theories, and principles that are taught and learned rather than related to skills such as reading, writing, or researching that student also learns in academic courses.


SOURCES OF KNOWLEDGE

  1. Sense Experience Empirical Knowledge
  2. Reason Rational Knowledge
  3. Experimentation
  4. Authority
  5. Intuition
  6. Revealed Faith Knowledge

1. Sense Experience Empirical Knowledge: Sense experience is the major source of knowledge that comes through the senses. Modern science is empirical in methods; concepts are formed as a result of sense experience. By seeing, hearing, smelling, feeling, and tasting. We form our composite of the world around us. An empirical caution us to “look and see”, whereas a rationalist tells us to “think things through”.

2. Reason Rational Knowledge: The view which says that our knowledge is essentially knowledge of universal and that these are known by the mind and not by senses is called Rationalism. When we say that if A is greater than B and B is greater than C, and then A is greater than C, here we are making a true statement based on reasoning and not derived from the sense.

3. Experimentation: The experimentation can be defined as a process of observation under controlled conditions. We depend on experimental knowledge for particular facts of the everyday world

4. Authority: The first fundamental source of knowledge is authoritarianism. It may, however, be noted that its central doctrine is that, the ultimate source of knowledge is the authority of different kinds - the God, the Sate, Tradition of the Expert.

5. Intuition: Intuition is perhaps the most personal way of knowing.

6. Revealed Faith Knowledge: Faith is in part the king of knowledge that God discloses to man. In this Omni sense, God inspires certain men to record. His revelation in permanent form, whereby it may become accessible to all mankind for the Hindu’s it is contained in the Bhagavad-Gita and the Upanishads. For Christians and Jews, it is contained in the Bible: for the Mohammedan’s, in the Koran.


TYPES OF KNOWLEDGE

The three major types of Knowledge are
  1. Personal
  2. Procedural
  3. Propositional knowledge

Personal Knowledge: The first kind of knowledge is personal knowledge or knowledge by acquaintance. This is the kind of knowledge that we are claiming to have when we say things like “I know Incidental music.”

Procedural Knowledge: The second kind of knowledge is procedural knowledge or knowledge of how to do something. People, who claim to know how to juggle, or how to drive, are not simply claiming that they understand the theory involved in those activities.

Propositional Knowledge: The third kind of knowledge, the kind that philosophers concern about most, is propositional knowledge, or knowledge of facts. When we say things “I know that it was you that ate my sandwich”, we are claiming to have propositional knowledge.


WAYS OF ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE

  1. Observation and Experience
  2. Reason or Logic
  3. Testimony
  4. Authority
  5. Revelation

CURRICULUM

Etymologically, the term curriculum is derived from the Latin word “currere” which means run or run-way or a running course. Thus, the curriculum means a course to be run for reaching a certain goal.

In the words of Cunningham, the curriculum is a tool in the hands of the artist (the teacher) to mold his material (the pupil) according to his ideal (objective) in his studio (the school). The material is highly self-active, the self-determining human being who reacts and responds consciously.

It is the sum total of all the activities and experiences provided by the schools to the learners for achieving the desired objectives. The courses of studies are merely a suggestion for curriculum activities and procedures, a guide for teaching to follow.

The curriculum is one of the most important items in the educative process. The curriculum, in fact, is the fundamental problem that determines the ‘warp’ and ‘woof’ of the process of education. What to do and how to do is the very essence of the curriculum.


Nature of Curriculum

  • Curriculum as a Plan
  • Curriculum as an Experience
  • Curriculum as a Subject Matter
  • Curriculum as an Objective
  • Curriculum as a system
  • Curriculum as a field of study

Difference Between Curriculum and Syllabus

CURRICULUM SYLLABUS
The curriculum is based on the philosophy and goals of education. The syllabus does not take into account the factors of philosophy.
It refers to all the educational activities of the school in the widest possible sense It refers to a list of unelaborated headings or booklet
It is the sum total of school subjects, learning experiences, & activities. It is concerned with school subjects.
Co-Curricular and extra-curricular activities are prescribed in the curriculum. There are No prescribed co-curricular and extra-curricular activities in the form of a syllabus.
It includes not only indoor activities but also outdoor activities of the school. The syllabus is concerned with the in-door activities of the school.
The curriculum has countless roles to play. The syllabus has a limited role to play.
It is an inclusive concept. It includes the syllabus also. It is a part of a curriculum.

Curriculum Development

Curriculum development means a continuous process or a never-ending process. It is difficult to trace its origin.

The main focus of the curriculum is to develop the students. The curriculum is designed to realize the objectives in terms of changing behaviors.

  1. Teaching objectives
  2. Methods of teaching
  3. Examination or testing
  4. Feedback

Teaching objectives: Three types of teaching objectives cognitive, affective, and psycho-motor are identified in view of subject content to be taught. These objectives are written in behavioral terms. All learning experiences are organized to achieve these objectives.

Methods of teaching: The most important aspect of providing learning experiences is teaching strategies. The objectives are legalized in terms of the behavioral of the learners. The content is the means to select the method of teaching and the level of the pupil understanding.

Process of evaluation: The evaluation of change of behavior is done to ascertain about the realization of the teaching-learning objectives. The level of pupil performance indicates the effectiveness of the method of teaching and learning experiences.

Feedback: The interpretation of performance provides the teacher to improve and modify the form of the curriculum. The curriculum is developed and teaching objectives are also revised. The methodology of teaching is changed in view of the curriculum and objectives are to be achieved.


Need and Importance of Curriculum Development

The need for and importance of curriculum development is stated as:
  • Achievement of educational Aims
  • Criteria of appropriate Teachers
  • Selection of appropriate Methods
  • Reflects Trends in Education
  • Providing Appropriate Knowledge
  • Providing Appropriate Activities and Experiences
  • Providing Wholesome Influences

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM

  • Principle of Conservation
  • Principle of Forward-Looking
  • Principle of Maturity
  • Principles of Creativity
  • Principle of Utility
  • Principle of Totality
  • Principle of LPG (Liberalization, Privatization, and Globalization)
  • Principle of Values
  • The Curriculum Should Be Productivity Oriented
  • The Curriculum Should Be Activity-Based.
  • The Curriculum Should Be Child-Centered.
  • The Curriculum Should Be Human Development Oriented.
  • The Curriculum Should Be New Knowledge Oriented.

TYPES OF CURRICULUM

The types of the curriculum can be broadly presented as:
  • Subject-Centered Curriculum
  • Learner-Centered Curriculum
  • Problem-Centered Curriculum
  • Core Curriculum
  • Hidden or Latent Curriculum

FOUNDATIONS OF CURRICULUM

The foundations of the curriculum set the external boundaries of the knowledge of the curriculum and define what constitutes a valid source of information from which come accepted theories, principles, and ideas relevant to the field of curriculum.

The foundations of curriculum represent the external boundaries of the field.

The foundations of the curriculum are considered usually from

  • Philosophical,
  • Sociological and
  • Psychological points of view.

Philosophical Foundation of Curriculum

Philosophical foundations may be defined as the elements of philosophy which have a bearing on the choices made in regard to the purposes, methods, and content of the school.


Idealism

  • According to idealism a belief is true when it is logically consistent with the rest of our beliefs.
  • Idealism is based-on The coherence theory of truth.
  • According to this theory truth is coherence within our experience.
  • Idealistic curriculum reflects the cultural heritage and civilization of the whole human race.

Naturalism

  • Naturalism advocates the selection of learning experiences according to the present needs, interests, and activities of the child.
  • It insists that adult interference should be reduced to the minimum and that the child should grow up in a free atmosphere.

Pragmatism

  • It is based on change, process, and relatively.
  • It constructs knowledge as a process in which reality is constantly changing and rejects the dogmas of pre-conceived truths and external values.
  • Pragmatic curriculum reflects practical utilitarian subjects.
  • The curriculum designed based on the principle of utility, integration, and child’s personal needs, interests, and experience.

Realism

  • Realism is a philosophy of common sense and science.
  • Realistic curriculum reflects the material world, physical science, and quantitative aspects of education

Existentialism

Existentialism is a philosophical belief according to which the greatest philosophical problem is that of personal existence and that only positive social participation is the way to true morality.


Essentialism

  • Essentialism emphasizes an academic subject-centered curriculum consisting of essential skills (three R’s.) and essential subjects (English, science, history, math).
  • Essentialism advocates fundamentals or mastery of essential skills and facts that form the basis of the subject matter.

Progressivism

In progressivism, the focus of the curriculum is based on
  • students’ interest,
  • involves the application of human problems and affairs;
  • interdisciplinary subject matter;
  • activities and projects.
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