ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING

ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING


Assessment For Learning subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

Meaning of Assessment

In education, the term assessment refers to the wide variety of methods that educators use to evaluate, measure, and document the academic readiness, learning progress, and skill acquisition of students.

  • It is the process of systematically gathering information as part of an evaluation.
  • Assessment is carried out to see what children and young people know, understand, and are able to do.
  • Assessment is very important for tracking progress, planning the next steps, reporting, and involving parents, children, and young people in learning.

Meaning of Measurement

Measurement is actually the process of estimating the values that is the physical quantities like; time, temperature, weight, length, etc.

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.


Meaning of Appraisal

An assessment or estimation of the worth, value, or quality of a person or thing is called appraisal.


Meaning of Evaluation

Evaluation is a broader term that refers to all of the methods used to find out what happens as a result of using a specific intervention or practice.

Evaluation is the systematic assessment of the worth or merit of some object. It is the systematic acquisition and assessment of information to provide useful feedback about some object.


Interrelation among Assessment, Evaluation, and Measurement

Assessment is defined as gathering information or evidence, and evaluation is the use of that information or evidence to make judgments.

Measurement involves assigning numbers or scores to an "attribute or characteristic of a person in such a way that the numbers describe the degree to which the person possesses the attribute". Assigning grade equivalents to scores on a standardized achievement test is an example of measurement.


PURPOSES OF ASSESSMENT

  1. The primary purpose of assessment is to improve students learning and teachers' teaching.
  2. Students and teachers can use the information gained from assessment to determine their next teaching and learning steps.
  3. Parents and families can be kept informed of the next plans for teaching and learning and the progress being made, so they can play an active role in their children ‘s learning.
  4. School leaders can use the information for school-wide planning, to support their teachers and determine professional development needs.
  5. Communities and Boards of Trustees can use assessment information to assist their governance role and their decisions about staffing and resourcing.
  6. The Education Review Office can use assessment information to inform their advice for school improvement.
  7. The Ministry of Education can use assessment information to undertake policy review and development at a national.

PRINCIPLES OF ASSESSMENT

The major principles of assessment are:
  1. Reliability
  2. Validity
  3. Relevance
  4. Transferability

CHARACTERISTICS OF CLASSROOM ASSESSMENT

The different characteristics of classroom assessment are:
  • It is Learner-Centered
  • It is Teacher-Directed. Individual teachers decide what to assess, how to assess, and how to respond to the information gained through the assessment.
  • It is Mutually Beneficial. Students are active participants. Teachers improve their teaching skills and gain new insights.
  • It is a Context-Specific.
  • It is Ongoing. Classroom assessment is a continuous process.
  • It is Rooted in Good Teaching Practice. The classroom assessment builds on good practices by making feedback on students' learning more systematic, more flexible, and more effective.

CLASSIFICATION OF ASSESSMENT

Prognostic Assessment

A prognostic assessment expands the findings of an assessment with analysis of abilities and potentials with a further dimension: the future development of the concerned person, as well as the necessary conditions, timeframe, and limits.

Typically, the prognostic assessment is accomplished as an individual one- day-assessment.


Diagnostic Assessment

Diagnostic assessment can help the teacher to identify your students ‘current knowledge of a subject, their skill sets, and capabilities, and to clarify misconceptions before teaching takes place. Knowing students ‘strengths and weaknesses can help the teacher to better plan what to teach and how to teach it.

Types of Diagnostic Assessments:

  1. Pre-tests
  2. Self-assessments
  3. Discussion board responses
  4. Interviews

Formative Assessment

Formative assessment provides feedback and information during the instructional process, while learning is taking place, and while learning is occurring.

A primary focus of formative assessment is to identify areas that may need improvement.


Types of Formative Assessment:

  • Observations
  • Homework exercises
  • Reflections journals
  • Question and answer sessions
  • Conferences
  • In-class activities
  • Student feedback

Summative Assessment

Summative assessment takes place after the learning has been completed and provides information and feedback that sums up the teaching and learning process.

Types of Summative Assessment
  • Examinations
  • Final examination
  • Term papers
  • Projects
  • Portfolios
  • Performances
  • Student evaluation of the course
  • Instructor self-evaluation

EVALUATION

Evaluation is a series of activities that are designed to measure the effectiveness of the teaching-learning as a whole process. It is the assessment of systematic planned and quality learning.

It helps the teacher to make better judgments in various aspects.


MAJOR TYPES OF ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING

There are two types of Assessments
  1. Formative Assessment
  2. Summative Assessment

FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT

It should be conducted continuously throughout the course. It is used to improve instruction and learning and to keep both students and teachers aware of the course objectives and the student‘s progress in achieving those objectives.

The primary purpose of formative assessment is to improve learning, not merely to audit it. It is an assessment for learning rather than an assessment of learning.

  • This is done during the instructional process.
  • Assessment should aim at the objectives of the instructional process.
  • It must modify the process if needed before the completion.

Merits of Formative Assessment

  1. This aims at continuous feedback for both teachers and students.
  2. Feedback provides specific learning errors
  3. Formative Assessment also provides reinforcement to students
  4. This leads to getting information to teachers whether any modification is necessary or not.

Demerits of Conducting Formative Assessment

  1. Lack of experienced, honest, and sincere teachers.
  2. Take more time to undertake several activities.
  3. It is Sometimes misused by the teachers.
  4. There may be weaker students for remedial work.

Some Methods of Formative Assessment

1. PROJECTS

Project is the modern method in which the student’s creativity in designing the content of studies.

According to W.H. Kilpatrick, ―A project is a wholehearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment.
Types of Project
  • Individual and Social Projects
  • Group Projects
  • Simple and Complex Projects

Steps of a Project Method
  1. Creating a Situation
  2. Selection of the problem
  3. Planning
  4. Execution
  5. Evaluation
  6. Reporting and Recording

2. ASSIGNMENTS

Assignments are used as learning devices and tool for evaluation. There is no doubt that the assignment is carefully planned and regularly valued by the teachers to improve the student‘s attainment. The assignment is one of the most important phases of teaching.

Purpose of Assignments
  • To provide opportunities for students to work and practice independently.
  • To develop self-reliance & initiative.
  • To develop habits of reading regularly among the students.
  • To provide opportunities for students to utilize leisure time profitably.
  • To provide remedial measures for backward students.

Kinds of Assignment
  1. Page-by-Page Assignment
  2. Chapter Assignment
  3. Problem Assignment
  4. Topical Assignment
  5. Project Assignment
  6. Contract Assignment
  7. Unit Assignment
  8. Cooperative or Group Assignment
  9. Syllabus Assignment
  10. Drill Assignment

SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

Summative Assessment (SA) is given to the students after he or she has passed all the formative assessments. The effectiveness of teaching and instruction is evaluated on the basis of the student‘s performance.

Summative Assessment comes at the end of the course. It is done at the end of instruction to measure at what extend the students have attained their achievement.

Summative Assessment involves the final tests or the annual examinations that declare a student‘s promotion to the next higher class or detention in the same class.


Characteristics of Summative Assessment
  1. It is a descriptive analysis.
  2. It focuses mainly on analysis.
  3. It tends to stress the effects.
  4. It also provides the appropriateness of course and effect of instruction.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FORMATIVE AND SUMMATIVE ASSESSMENT

  • Formative assessment is the assessment made during the instructional phase about progress in learning but the summative assessment is the terminal assessment of performance at the end of instruction.
  • Formative assessment of the scores of individual patterns of pass-fail whereas in summative assessment report is given in terms of total scores.
  • Formative assessment content focus is detailed and it is narrow and in summative assessment content is general and broad.
  • The informative assessment process is given in daily assignments in the observation method but in the summative assessment process in projects and tests.

Methods of Summative Assessment

1. TESTS

The test is to measure the ability, knowledge, or performance developed during the course of learning.

Two types of tests are given to assess the knowledge of students.
  1. Teacher Made Test
  2. Standardized Tests

TYPES OF SELECTED RESPONSE ASSESSMENT

Objective Type

To mitigate some of the evils of the essay type examinations, objective tests seem to be very useful. Modern educationists lay much stress on this type of test to supplement the traditional type of tests.


Types of Objective Tests:

  1. True – False (Alternate Response Type)
  2. Multiple Choice
  3. Matching Type
  4. Completion Type Test

Advantages of Objective Type Tests:

  • A large amount of study material can be tested in a very short period of time.
  • Time-Saving
  • Objectivity of scoring
  • If carefully planned, it can measure the higher mental process of understanding, application, analysis, prediction, and interpretation.

Limitations of Objective type Tests:

  • Difficulty in preparing good items
  • Problem of guessing
  • Problem of cheating
  • Inefficiency in testing complicated skills
  • High printing cost

Matching Type Tests

A matching type test consists of two columns: one column of stems or problems to be answered, and another column of responses from which the answers are to be chosen.


Short Answer Type

A question requiring three value points at most may be defined as a short answer question. It helps in ensuring wide coverage of content.


Essay Type Tests

  • It is a free response test.
  • It helps in ensuring wide coverage of content and a variety of objectives.
  • It helps in evaluating complex skills.

Advantages Essay Type Tests:
  1. Easy to prepare
  2. Useful in measuring certain abilities and skills
  3. Permit the examinee to write down comprehensively what he knows about something
  4. Promote originality and creative thinking
  5. The possibility of the guesswork can be eliminated
  6. Reduce chance on the spot copying

Limitations of Essay Type Items:
  1. Minimum validity
  2. Lack of reliability
  3. No objectivity
  4. Rote memory is encouraged
  5. It is a time-consuming test item

OBSERVATION

Observation helps the observer to observe the activities of students, class-behavior, and hence ascertain the emotional development, mental development, and maturity, etc.

During the observation, care should be taken that the person who is observed is unaware that he is being observed. Thus, the observation should be out of the knowledge of a person.


Steps of Observation
  1. Planning
  2. Execution
  3. Recording and interpretation

CHECKLIST

  • It is one of the specific instruments for evaluation. The checklist is in the form of a questionnaire.
  • In this, the answers to the questions are given
  • A checklist can be used for self-evaluation or for other ‘s evaluations.
  • It exhibits if the student has any particular characteristics or not and thus helps in the evaluation of the students.

RATING SCALE

It can be used to evaluate personality traits, creative skills, individual or social adjustment, etc.,

Types of Rating Scales
  1. Numerical Scales
  2. Graphic Scale
  3. Standard Scales
  4. Check Lists
  5. Forced Choice Scale
  6. Ranking method
  7. Q-Sort-method

INTERVIEW

The interview is a purposeful conversation - John Darle

An interview means communication or conversation between two persons initiated by the interviewer for collecting the information about research keeping in mind the objectives of the interview.

Here the information is collected directly by verbal communication between two or more persons and the responses of the respondents are noted.


Characteristics of Interview

  1. It is social interaction
  2. It involves various direct involvements of interviewer and respondent.
  3. It involves various forms of questions to be asked to the respondent.
  4. It is a purposeful and serious conversation.
  5. It involves the establishment of intimacy between the interviewer and respondent.
  6. It is a process of communication or interaction.
  7. It involves the note of responses delivered by the respondent.
  8. It involves the face-to-face involvement of the respondent and the interviewer.
  9. It can be conducted one or more times.
  10. It is a tool to collect useful information in many research situations.
  11. It can be in person or in a group.
  12. It exhibits the response excitement by the respondent.
  13. It is a behavioral method.
  14. It indicates social, intellectual, and educational homogeneity.
  15. It may be a formal, informal, directional, or non-directional interview.

Types of Interview

  1. Diagnostic Interview
  2. Remedial Interview
  3. Structured Interview or Controlled Interview
  4. Unstructured Interview
  5. Individual and Group Interview
  6. Directional Interview
  7. Non-Directional Interview
  8. Focused Interview
  9. In-depth Interview

Steps of Interview

  1. Preparation for Interview
  2. Objectives of the interview
  3. Prepare an Interview Register
  4. Execution of Interview
  5. Establishing Rapport
  6. Seeking the Information
  7. Note-taking
  8. Analysis of the collected Information

ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES

The word 'assessment' came into use in an educational context after the Second World War. The final purpose of assessment practices in education depends on the theoretical framework of the practitioners and researchers, their assumptions and beliefs about the nature of the human mind, the origin of knowledge, and the process of learning.


Some More Types of Assessment

Oral Test

The oral exam (also oral test or viva voce) is a practice in many schools and disciplines in which an examiner poses questions to the student in spoken form.


Written Test

Assessment (either summative or formative) is often categorized as either objective or subjective. Objective assessment is a form of questioning which has a single correct answer. Subjective assessment is a form of questioning which may have more than one correct answer (or more than one way of expressing the correct answer).


Informal and Formal Assessment

Formal assessment usually implies a written document, such as a test, quiz or paper.

An informal assessment usually occurs in a more casual manner and may include observation, inventories, checklists, rating scales, rubrics, performance and portfolio assessments, participation, peer and self-evaluation, and discussion.


Open Book and Take-Home Exams

Open book exams allow you to take notes, texts, or resource materials into an exam situation. They test your ability to find and apply information and knowledge, so are often used in subjects requiring direct reference to written materials, like law statutes, statistics, or acts of parliament.


ACHIEVEMENT TEST

Any test designed to assess the achievement in any subject with regard to a set of predetermined objectives is known as an achievement test.

The major steps involved in the construction of the achievement test are
  1. Planning of test
  2. Preparation of a design for the test
  3. Preparation of the blueprint
  4. Writing of items
  5. Preparation of the scoring key and marking scheme
  6. Preparation of question-wise analysis

NEW TRENDS IN ASSESSMENT FOR LEARNING AND EVALUATION

EXISTING PRACTICES

  • Class /Unit Tests
  • Half- Yearly and Annual Examinations
  • Board Examination
  • Entrance Test

QUESTION BANK

  • Question Bank is a collection or reservoir of questions for timely use.
  • But the haphazard collection of questions will not make a Question Bank.
  • The questions in a Question Bank must be reliable and valid and should be suitable for testing different traits and the candidates.
  • Therefore, each question in a Question Bank is scrutinized on the basis of its quality and relevance and is included in the bank only after assigning technical values to enable the users to use them according to their requirements.

Grading System

Grading is a process of classifying students based on their performance into groups with the help of predetermined standards, expressed in a symbolic form i.e., letters of the English alphabet.

As these grades and corresponding symbols are pre-determined and well defined, all the stakeholders would understand them uniformly and consistently.

While developing the grading system, it is of utmost significance that the meaning of each grading symbol is clearly spelled out.


Merits of Grading System

  • It helps in categorizing the students as per their attainments of instructional objectives also.
  • It creates favorable conditions for the classification of students ‘performance on a more convincing and justifiable scale.
  • Grading is a far more satisfactory method than the numerical marking system.
  • The justification for the superiority of the grading system over the marking system is that it signifies individual learner‘s performance in the form of a certain level of achievement in relation to the whole group.

PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS

A psychological test is "an objective and standardized measure of a sample of behavior".


Types of Psychological Tests

  1. IQ/Achievement Tests
  2. Attitude Tests
  3. Neuropsychological Tests
  4. Personality Tests
  5. Objective Tests (Rating scale or self-report measure)
  6. Projective Tests (Free response measures)
  7. Direct Observation Tests
  8. Interest Tests
  9. Aptitude Tests

Main Trends within Assessment and Evaluation

  • Expansion of educational evaluation in school systems
  • Greater variety of evaluation and assessment activities
  • The rise of educational measurement and indicators of development
  • Larger and more varied uses are given to evaluation and assessment results
  • Accountability as a purpose of evaluation and assessment is gaining in importance
  • Greater reliance on educational standards
  • Assessment is becoming more international
  • Greater technological sophistication

Online Examination

An online examination is also called an online assessment. The online assessment is the process used to measure certain aspects of information for a set purpose where the assessment is delivered via a computer connected to a network.


INFORMATION GATHERING (QUALITATIVE & QUANTITATIVE)

1.Quantitative Research

Quantitative research is perhaps simpler to define and identify. The data produced are always numerical, and they are analyzed using mathematical and statistical methods.

Sources of Quantitative Data
  • Surveys
  • Observations
  • Secondary data

2. Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is any which does not involve numbers or numerical data. It often involves words or language, but may also use pictures or photographs and observations.

These include:
  • Interviews
  • Focus groups
  • ‘Postcards’
  • Secondary data
  • Observations
Further References:

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