CONTEMPORARY INDIA AND EDUCATION

CONTEMPORARY INDIA AND EDUCATION


Contemporary India And Education subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

WHAT IS EDUCATION?

MEANING OF EDUCATION

The term "Education" has been derived from the Latin term "Educatum" which means the act of teaching or training.

Education seeks to nourish the good qualities in a man and draw out the best in every individual. By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge, understanding, skills, interests, attitudes, and critical thinking.

As an individual in the society, we have to think critically about various issues in life and make decisions about them being free from bias and prejudices, superstitions, and blind beliefs. Thus, we have to learn all these qualities of head, hand, and heart through the process of education.


DEFINITION OF EDUCATION

"Education is something which makes man self-reliant and selfless" – Rigved
"By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the Child and man-body, mind and spirit” - Gandhiji
"The widest road leading to the solution of all our problems is education." - Tagore
"Education is the creation of a sound mind in a sound body. It develops man's faculty, especially his mind so that he may be able to enjoy the contemplation of supreme truth, goodness, and beauty of which perfect happiness essentially consists” - Aristotle

TYPS OF EDUCATION

  1. Formal Education
  2. Non-Formal Education
  3. Informal Education

FORMAL EDUCATION

  • It corresponds to the education process normally adopted by our schools and universities.
  • Formal education corresponds to a systematic, organized education model, structured and administered according to a given set of laws and norms, presenting a rather rigid curriculum as regards objectives, content, and methodology.
  • It is characterized by a continuous education process, which necessarily involves the teacher, the students, and the institution.

NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

Non-formal education characteristics are found when the adopted strategy does not require
  • Student attendance,
  • Decreasing the contacts between teacher and student and
  • Most activities take place outside the institution - for instance, home reading and paperwork.
  • Educative processes endowed with flexible curricula and methodology, capable of adapting to the needs and interests of students

INFORMAL EDUCATION

Informal education is quite diverse from formal education and, particularly, from non- formal education, although in certain cases it is capable of maintaining a close relationship with both.
  • It does not correspond to an organized and systematic view of education;
  • Informal education does not necessarily include the objectives and subjects usually encompassed by the traditional curricula.
  • It is aimed at students as much as at the public at large and imposes no obligations whatever their nature.
  • Informal education does not necessarily regard the providing of degrees or diplomas; it merely supplements both formal and non-formal education.
Informal education for instance comprises the following activities:
  1. Visits to museums or to scientific and other fairs and exhibits, etc.
  2. Listening to radio broadcasting or watching tv programs on educational or scientific themes
  3. Reading texts on sciences, education, technology, etc. In journals and magazines
  4. Participating in scientific contests
  5. Attending lectures and conferences

VARIOUS LEVELS OF EDUCATION IN INDIA

Education in India follows a uniform structure of school education.
  • Pre-Primary Stage
  • The Primary Stage
  • The Middle Stage
  • The Secondary Stage
  • Senior Secondary Stage
  • Undergraduate Stage
  • Postgraduate Stage

DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EDUCATION

  1. School Education: Primary, Secondary, and Higher Secondary education
  2. Higher Secondary Education: Under-Graduate/ Bachelor’s level of education
  3. Post-Graduate/Master’s level of education
  4. Doctoral studies/Ph.D. level education
  5. Vocational Education & Training
  6. Certificate and Diploma programs
  7. Distance Education

Adult Education in India

Adult Education in India comes under the purview of the Department of School Education and Literacy. The Directorate of Adult Education provides necessary technical and resource support to the National Literacy Mission Authority (NLMA).


Distance Education in India

Distance education provided by institutes is controlled by the Distance Education Council of India. Distance education is helpful to those who cannot join regular schools or colleges.

  1. At the school level, the National Institute of Open Schooling offers education through distance learning.
  2. While, at the college or university level, Open universities provide distance education.

Homeschooling in India

Homeschooling isn’t widespread in India and neither is it widely accepted. This is the type of alternative education. It is considered handicapped or those who are unable to attend regular school due to various factors.


The Education System in India

Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels:

1. Central
2. State
3. Local
  • Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14.
  • The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body for curriculum-related matters for school education in India.
  • Most of the state governments have one "State board of secondary education".
  • Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducts examinations at the 10th and 12th standards.

Women's education

  • Women have a much lower literacy rate than men.
  • Far fewer girls are enrolled in the schools, and many of them drop out.
  • In the patriarchal setting of the Indian family, girls have lower status and fewer privileges than boy children.
  • Conservative cultural attitudes prevent some girls from attending school.

Aims of Education in Contemporary Indian Society

According to Kothari Commission, “One of the important social objectives of education is to equalize opportunity, enabling the backward or underprivileged classes and individuals to use education as a tool for improvement of their social and economic condition”.

For this purpose, the commission has suggested the following objectives of education:
  1. Increasing productivity
  2. Social and national integration
  3. Acceleration the process of modernization
  4. Developing social, moral, and spiritual values

DIVERSITY IN INDIAN SOCIETY

The sources of diversity in India may be traced through a variety of ways. The most obvious ones are the
  1. Ethnic origins
  2. Religions
  3. Castes
  4. Tribes
  5. Languages
  6. Social customs
  7. Cultural and subcultural beliefs
  8. Political philosophies and ideologies
  9. Geographical variations

INEQUALITY AND MARGINALIZATION

The presence of inequality and marginalization of certain groups of people are due to:
  • Stratification of Indian Society with reference to Caste, Class, Gender, Region (Rural-urban disparity) and
  • Role of Education in addressing the needs of Marginalized groups in Indian society: SC/ST/OBC/EBC/NT, Women, Rural, and remote region.

Social Stratification

Social Stratification is the condition of being arranged in social strata or classes within a group. In other words, it is a system by which society divides people and ranks them in categories.

According to Gisbert: "Social stratification is the division of society into permanent groups of categories linked with each other by the relationship of superiority and subordination."

Stratification in Indian Society

Stratification in Indian society is based on ascription. It means it is a type of culture in which not on the basis of achievement. It could involve inequality on the basis of gender, economic status, and the caste system.

Thus here, in Indian society, people are placed in the stratification system by their ascribed status and the ideology is to follow the caste rules without questioning its credibility.


FORMS AND BASES OF SOCIAL STRATIFICATION

Social stratification is the term used to refer to the division of society into layers or strata that makes up a hierarchy of unequal groups, who are ranked one above the other on the basis of wealth, power and status.


Marginalized Groups in Indian society

Encyclopedia of Public Health defines marginalized groups as Being marginalized is to be placed in the margins, and thus excluded from the privilege and power found at the center.

CULTURE AND EDUCATION

Education as a part of culture has the twin functions of conservation and modification or renewal of the culture.

Education is conceived as a systematic effort to maintain a culture.

"In its technical sense education is the process by which society, through schools, colleges, universities, and other institutions, deliberately transmits its cultural heritage, its accumulated knowledge, values and skills from one generation to another."


MEANING AND DEFINITION OF CULTURE

According to H.T. Mazumdar,“Culture is the sum total of human achievements, material as well as non-material, capable of transmission, sociologically, i.e., by tradition and communication, vertically as well as horizontally”.

We may define culture as the sum-total of human achievements or the total heritage of man which can be transmitted to men by communication and tradition. It is a way of life of the people in a certain geographical area.


CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE

  • Culture is learned
  • Culture is shared by a group of people
  • Culture is cumulative
  • Cultures change
  • Culture is dynamic
  • Culture is ideational
  • Culture is diverse
  • Culture gives us a range of permissible behavior patterns

ROLE OF EDUCATION IN CULTURE

  1. Culture influences education in the same way as education influences the culture of a country.
  2. The culture of any society should be preserved for the benefit of the coming generation.
  3. It should be transmitted properly from generation-to-generation.
  4. If culture is not conserved and promoted and then transmitted, all the human knowledge and experiences will be lost to the successive generations.
  5. Moreover, culture should be developed by dropping a few old elements and incorporating a few new elements according to the changing needs and demands of society.

SOCIAL CHANGE

Social change refers to the modifications which take place in the life pattern of people.

The word ‘change’ denotes a difference in anything observed over some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over any period of time.

“By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the society, the composition or the balance of its parts or the type of its organization” -Morris Ginsberg

Characteristics of Social Change

  1. Social Change is Social
  2. Social Change is Universal
  3. Social Change occurs as an Essential law
  4. Social Change is Continuous
  5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement
  6. Social Change is Bound by Time Factors
  7. Rate and Tempo of Social Change is Uneven
  8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible
  9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences
  10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of Factors
  11. Social Changes are chiefly those of Modifications or of Replacement
  12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale
  13. Short-term and Long-term Change
  14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent
  15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned

TECHNOLOGICAL FACTOR OF SOCIAL CHANGE

Sources of Technological Change:

There are mainly two important sources of technological change. They are:
  1. Inventions
  2. Discovery
Invention and discovery are significant characteristics of the present age. Apart from these two, there are three technological factors that are mainly responsible for social change.

They are:
  1. Technological Innovations
  2. Changes in production technology
  3. Changes in transportation and communication

EQUALITY OF EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITY - SC/ST, OBC, WOMEN HANDICAPPED, AND MINORITIES

The equalization of educational opportunities is essentially linked with the notion of equality in the social system.

In a social system, if all the individuals are treated as equals, they get equal opportunities for advancement.

Since education is one of the most important means of upward mobility, it is through exposure to education one can aspire to achieve higher status, position, and emoluments.

The need for emphasizing the equality of opportunity in education arises due to a number of reasons. Some of these reasons are:
  • It is needed because it is through education to all the people in a democracy; the success of democratic institutions is assured.
  • The equality of educational opportunities will ensure the rapid development of a nation.
  • A closer link between the manpower needs of society and the availability of skilled personnel will develop.
  • People with specialized talents for specialized jobs in a large number will be available and the society will be benefited.

In the Indian situation, educational inequality due to sex is also very much visible. Girls’ education at all stages of education is not given the same encouragement as boys.

The social customs and taboos hinder the progress of girls’ education. They are given an inferior position in the family and their education is neglected.


Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC)

This Scheme of Integrated Education for the Disabled Children (IEDC) was started with the objective of providing educational opportunities to all children with disabilities under the general school system.

The ultimate objective is to integrate children with disabilities in the general education system and to eliminate disparities and equalize educational opportunities to enable them to become equally contributing members of society.


ILLITERACY

The basic definition of literacy is having the ability to read and write.

Illiteracy in India is a problem which has complex dimensions attached to it. Illiteracy in India is more or less concerned with different forms of disparities that exist in the country.

There are
  • Gender imbalances
  • Income imbalances
  • State imbalances
  • Caste imbalances
  • Technological barriers

National Adult Education Programme (NAEP)

The National Adult Education Programme (NAEP) was launched on 2nd October 1978. The program aims at eradicating illiteracy among adults of the age group 15-35.

Following are the objectives of NAEP
  • Promotion of Literacy
  • Creation of Awareness
  • Raising functional capabilities
  • Duration
  • Training
  • Agencies
  • Post-Literacy and follow-up Activities
  • Organization and Administration

Rural Functional Literacy Programme (RFLP)

The RFL program is a sub-program of the Adult Education Programme which is fully funded by the central government and implemented by the states and union territories.


National Literacy Mission (NLM)

In accordance with the directives of the National Policy on Education and the implementation strategies envisaged in the Programme of Action, the government formulated a comprehensive program and constituted National Literacy Mission (NLM) with a view to achieving literacy goals through setting into motion Total Literacy Campaigns (TLCs) all over the country in a phased manner.

The NLM was launched in May 1988 to achieve the goal of imparting ‘functional literacy’ to 80 million illiterate persons in the 15-35 age groups by 1995.


CHILD LABOUR

Everyone agrees that child labor is a plague but most families know they don’t have much choice: not putting a child to work means there won’t be enough food on the table for everyone.

By law, India protects every child under 14 against the threat of forced labor.


UNEMPLOYMENT

Unemployment is a situation when a capable and willing to do the job workforce does not get work.


Impact of Unemployment

  • Apart from the financial impact, unemployment has many social impacts like theft, violence, drug-taking, crime, health as well as it leads to psychological issues.
  • Next comes the poverty that is directly linked with unemployment as well as inequality.
  • Long term unemployment can actually ruin the family and society.

SIGNIFICANT RECOMMENDATIONS OF COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES

Lord Macaulay’s Minute

  • Introduction of English as a Medium of Instruction: Christian missionaries made attempts to revive an out of date system of education and advocated the teaching of the Christian religion and Western Literature through English medium.
  • The scale in favor of the English language and Western literature was the main economic factor – Indians wanted a system of education that could help them to earn their livelihood. Progressive Indian elements also favored the spread of Western learning and English education.
  • Raja Ram Mohan Roy protested against Government proposals to strengthen the Madras, Calcutta, and Banaras Sanskrit colleges in order to establish more oriental colleges in Bengal.
  • The Government agreed to encourage the study of oriental language as well as English.
  • As per the Charter Act in 1813, the British Parliament provided an annual expenditure for educating the Indians, of rupees one lakh.
  • The money could not be spent up to the end of the year.
  • The failure of utilizing this money was one reason for the controversy between the orientalists and the Anglicists.
  • While the orientalists desired that the money should be spent on the study of Indian languages and learning of Persian and Sanskrit, the Anglicists insisted that it should be spent on the English language and learning.
  • When William Bentinck came as the Governor-General of India, the controversy was settled.

Wood’s Dispatch on Education, 1854

The ‘Wood’s Education Dispatch’ an important educational document was released on 19 July 1854 after Sir Charles Wood, then president of the East Indian company’s Board of Control and described as the ‘Magna Carta’ of English education in India.

The Dispatch contained the first comprehensive plan for the spread of education in India and systematized the educational hierarchy from the primary, high school, college, and university.

Major Recommendation
  • The medium of instruction was optional both Vernacular and English.
  • The first was encouraged at the school level, the latter at the university.
  • A system of grants in aid was laid down so as to encourage private initiative and enterprise in the field.
  • It was hoped that eventually state education would become supported, where, necessary, by state grant in aid.
  • The secular character of the plan by the fact was highlighted that financial aid was to be given irrespective of the religious learning of the institutions or the persons concerned. In fact, it was laid down that education imparted should be secular in government institutions.
  • Instruction in the Bible was to be given to such as volunteered for it and that too after school hours.
  • Stress was laid on vocational education, women education, and also teacher training.
  • Scholarships should be provided to meritorious students of all schools, be they private or government.
  • They were so planned as to connect lower schools with the higher and the latter with colleges.
  • To ensure the implementation of its program, examining and supervisory bodies were to be set up for purpose of inspection.
  • Each presidency town has a University, based on the pattern of the University of London, to conduct examinations and confer degrees.
  • All teaching was to be done in colleges.
  • The new education policy underlined the need for involvement by the community at large and stressed that no sudden result could be expected, least of all by dependence on the government alone.
  • The dispatch was to form the basis for all future legislation regarding the spread of education in India. Almost all the proposals in wood’s dispatch were implemented. The department of public instruction was organized in 1855 and it replaced the earlier committee of public instruction and council of education.

The Indian Education Commission 1882

Lord Ripon appointed an Education Commission under Mr. W.W. Hunter in 1882 to review the progress of education in these fields since Wood’s Dispatch in 1854. The commission submitted its report in 1883.

Some of its primary recommendations were as follows:
  • Primary education should be given priority. The Government should hand over the management of primary education to District and Municipal Boards which were to be provided one-third of its expenditure as grant in aid by the government.
  • Two types of high schools should be established, the one preparing students for vocational education and the other for providing literary education leading up to the entrance examination of the university.
  • The government should withdraw itself from the school and college education as far as possible and every effort should be made to encourage private enterprise in these fields by the system of liberal grants in aid.
  • Female education should be emphasized which was most inadequate outside the presidency town.

Most of the recommendations of the commission were accepted by the government and education developed with a marked speed after that. But more than the government a number of Indian philanthropic and religious associations participated in its growth.

It resulted not only in the development of Western education but also in oriental studies. Some teaching cum examining universities i.e. Punjab University in 1882 and the Allahabad University in 1887 were also established in the following years.

But female education, primary education still remained neglected.


EDUCATION IN POST-INDEPENDENT INDIA - SIGNIFICANT RECOMMENDATIONS OF COMMISSIONS AND COMMITTEES

University Education Commission 1948

The first Commission to be appointed as the University Education Commission in 1948, under the chairmanship of Dr. S. Radhakrishnan, to report on Indian University Education and suggest improvements and extensions that would be desirable to suit the present and future requirements of the country.


Education Commission (D.S. Kothari) 1964-66

After the appointment of the Mudaliar Commission, to deal with all aspects and sectors of education and to advise Government on the evolution of a National System of Education for the country, the Education Commission was appointed under the chairmanship of D.S. Kothari.

Based on this Commission's report, the National Policy on Education 1968 was formulated.

This Commission reviewed the development of education in India in the modern period and particularly since Independence and came to the conclusion that Indian education needs a drastic reconstruction, almost a revolution, to realize the Constitutional goals and to meet the various problems facing the country in different sectors.

This comprehensive reconstruction, said the Commission, has three main aspects

A) Internal transformation
B) Qualitative improvement
C) Expansion of educational facilities

The Commission has emphasized the following programs to bring about this transformation:

  1. Science Education
  2. Work Experience
  3. Vocational Education
  4. Vocational Education
  5. The Common School
  6. Social and National Service
  7. Language Policy
  8. Promotion of National Unity
  9. Elasticity and Dynamics
  10. Qualitative Improvement
  11. Utilization of Facilities
  12. Reorganization of Educational structure and Teachers stages and Education
  13. Selective Development
  14. Expansion of Educational Facilities
  15. Adult Literacy
  16. Secondary and Higher Education

National Policy of Education 1986 and POA 1992

The main objective of the National Policy of Education of 1986 and Programme of Action, 1992 was to establish a national system of education implies that all students irrespective of caste; a creed, sex, and religion have access to education of comparable quality.


INDIAN EDUCATION SYSTEM TODAY

Education in India today is nothing like it was in Pre-Independence and Post-Independence Era. Education System in India today went through a lot of changes before it emerged in its present form.

The present education system in India is also guided by different objectives and goals as compared to the earlier times. The present system of education in India, however, is based around the policies of yesteryears.


UNIVERSALISATION OF ELEMENTARY EDUCATION

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA)

Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), launched in November 2000 as an umbrella program, continued to be implemented to support and build upon other primary and elementary education projects.

The program aims to ensure five years of primary education for all children in the age group 6-14 years by 2007 and eight years of schooling by 2010.


RTE 2009

Right to Education (Article. 21-A) - The Constitution (86th Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of 6 to 14 years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.


Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan (RMSA)

This scheme was launched in March 2009 with the objective to enhance access to secondary education and to improve its quality. The implementation of the scheme started from 2009-2010.


DISTANCE EDUCATION

  • Distance Education Courses are basically correspondence courses that individuals can obtain their studies by not attending regular classes.
  • Students pursuing distance learning education need not worry concerning the course contents, mode of examination, and duration of the course or the degree as it’s going to be very same as awarded to regular students.
  • Distance Education is extremely advantageous for students who wish to pursue their higher studies, but do not get enough time to do this.
  • These management programs may be taken up by people who stay at remote places, workers, housewives, and even working professionals, who because for one or another reason are not able to take up a regular program.

GLOBALISATION, LIBERALISATION AND PRIVATISATION IN EDUCATION

What is LPG?

The economy of India had undergone significant policy shifts at the beginning of the 1990s. This new model of economic reforms is commonly known as the LPG or Liberalisation, Privatisation, and Globalisation model.


Liberalization

Liberalization refers to the relaxation of government restrictions in areas of economic policies. Thus, when government liberalizes trade it means it has removed the tariff, subsidies, and other restrictions on the flow of goods and services between countries.


Globalization

Economic globalization is the increasing economic interdependence of national economies across the world through a rapid increase in cross-border movement of goods, service, technology, and capital.

It is a process that draws countries out of their insulation and makes them join rest of the world in its march towards a new world economic order.


Privatization

It refers to the transfer of assets or service functions from the public to private ownership or control and the opening of the closed areas to private sector entry.

Barbara Lee and John Nellis define the concept in this manner: “privatization is the transfer of the role of the public sector to the private sector”.

PRIVATIZATION IN EDUCATION

Privatization of formal education in India is not new; it existed even before independence in the form of so-called public schools (like Doon School, Mayo College) and Christian missionary schools and colleges.

They used to be run by their own Board of Management without much interference by the government.

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