LEARNING AND TEACHING

LEARNING AND TEACHING

Learning and Teaching are the foundation of education and training. Both learning and teaching are extremely important and generally go together.

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What is Learning?

It is very essential for the teachers to know about the concept of the term ‘Learning’ before engaging in the teaching process.

Learning is an act of getting experience, knowledge, skills, and values by understanding what to do and how to do any task by synthesizing the different types of information perceived by us. Learning brings about changes in the existing behavior of an individual.

A child starts learning even in the womb of the mother and it involves continuous training or practice to produce a permanent change in the behavior. Learning not only brings about changes in the existing behavior of an individual but also enables individuals to acquire new behavior.

Definition of Learning

“Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavioural potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice” – Kimble (1961)
“The term learning covers every modification in behaviour to meet environmental requirements” – Garder Murphy (1968)
According to Crow and Crow (1973) - Learning is “the acquisition of habits, knowledge and attitudes. It involves new ways of doing things, and it operates in an individuals’ attempts to overcome obstacles or to adjust to new situations. It represents progressive changes in behaviour…. It enables him to satisfy interests to attain goals”

Types of Learning

We can classify Learning in different categories such as:
  1. Informal Learning
  2. Non-formal Learning
  3. Individual Learning
  4. Group Learning
  5. Motor Learning
  6. Verbal Learning
  7. Discrimination Learning
  8. Cognition Learning
  9. Sensory Learning

Factors Influencing Learning

There are three factors that influence learning. These factors are:
  1. Psychological individual differences of learners
  2. Teachers’ enthusiasm in classroom learning
  3. Environment and other factors

Significance of Learning

  • Learning helps us understand the basic necessities of life.
  • Learning helps to adapt to a new environment.
  • Learning helps respond to dangers and rear.

Factors Affecting Learning

The learner is the key figure in any learning task. The factors that affect the learning process are as follows.
  1. Learner’s physical and mental health
  2. The basic potential of the learner
  3. The level of aspiration and achievement motivation
  4. Goals of life
  5. Readiness and will power

What is Teaching?

Teaching is an integral part of the process of education. It is a system of actions intended to induce learning. Its special function is to impart knowledge, develop understanding and skill. In teaching, an interaction occurs between the teacher and the students, by which the students are diverted towards the goal.

Teaching is a process that usually takes place in classroom situations. It is a formal process through which the teacher interacts with the students to give what he/she wants the learners to learn according to their learning needs.

The role of the teacher in the teaching-learning process can be categorized as follows:
  • Traditional Role: Teacher Centred
  • Modern Role: Facilitator(student-centered)

There has been a change from the traditional role to the modern role in the present context.

Difference Between Teaching, Training and Instruction

Teaching

  • Teaching is more complex in nature
  • It is theoretical oriented
  • It varies according to the learner’s learning style
  • It is explaining how something is done
  • Teaching is based on individual differences in learning
  • It fills the cognitive, affective & psychomotor domains of learning
  • Teaching is a methodically planned activity in a classroom

Instruction

  • It is to adopt a specific method of teaching to attain the goal.
  • It differs according to the goals and needs of the learners
  • It deals with varied instructional materials that enhance learning
  • Instruction is suggesting directions in the teaching-learning process
  • It may end in the learning process inside a classroom
  • Teacher centered learning
  • It should be strictly followed to accomplish a particular task.

Training

  • It is practical oriented
  • It is a subset of teaching
  • It is to make prepared for a test of skill
  • It stresses on skills and abilities of a learner
  • Training is done by instruction, disciple, or drill
  • It imparts the hidden talents and skills of an individual
  • It enhances skills and abilities in a short period of time

Nature of Teaching

  1. Teaching is a process that facilitates learning.
  2. Teaching is the specialized application of knowledge, skills and attributes designed to provide unique service to meet the educational needs of the individual and of the society.
  3. In addition to providing students with learning opportunities to meet curriculum outcomes, teaching emphasizes the development of values and guides the learners in their social relationships.
  4. Teachers employ practices that develop a positive self-concept in students.
  5. Teaching is a comprehensive process that involves a systematic approach to accomplish the goals and aims of education.
  6. It is a goal-driven process where the teacher plays an eminent role in the process.

PHASES OF TEACHING

different steps constituting the process of teaching are called the phases of teaching.

The teaching can be divided into three phases as follows
  1. Pre-Active Phase of Teaching
  2. Interactive Phase of Teaching
  3. Post Active Phase of Teaching

Pre-Active Phase of Teaching

  1. In the pre-active phase of teaching, the planning of teaching is carried over.
  2. This phase includes those activities which a teacher performs before the classroom.
  3. This phase includes planning a classroom, strategies, and methods to be adopted, sequencing the selected content, use of teaching aids, and so on.

Interactive Phase of Teaching

  1. The second phase includes the execution of the plan, where learning experiences are provided to students through suitable modes such as classroom, laboratory, outdoors, or library.
  2. All those activities which are performed by a teacher after entering classes are combined together under the interactive phase of teaching.
  3. Generally, these activities are concerned with the presentation and delivery of the content in a class.
  4. The teacher provides learners, verbal stimulation of various kinds, make an explanation, ask questions, listen to the student’s response, and provide guidance.
  5. This phase includes activities like sizing up of the class, knowing about the previous knowledge, interest, attitude, etc, about the learners by probing questions and diagnosing section, and presentation of the stimuli, feedback, and reinforcement.
  6. It is the stage for actual teaching.

Post Active Phase of Teaching

  1. Post teaching phase is the phase that involves teacher’s activities such an analyzing the result to determine learners especially their problem in understanding specific areas, to reflect on the teaching by self, and to decide on the necessary changes to be brought in the system in the next instructional period.
  2. In this phase as the teaching task sums up, the teacher asks the questions from the learners, verbally in the written form, to measure the behavior of the pupils so that their achievements may be evaluated correctly.

Levels of Teaching

In the teaching-learning process, the teacher can present the content at different levels. The levels of teaching could be classified as follows:
  1. Memory Level
  2. Understanding Level
  3. Reflective Level

Memory Level of Teaching

In this level, the emphasis is laid down on the presentation of the facts and information and its cramming. Herbart is the exponent of the memory level of teaching.

Understanding Level of Teaching

The memory level of teaching is a prerequisite for the understanding level of teaching. In understanding the level of teaching, the teacher stresses to make understand the learners the generalizations, principles, and facts.

Reflective Level of Teaching

It includes both understanding level and the memory level of teaching. A reflective level of teaching means ‘problem-centered’ teaching. In this, the classroom environment is open sufficiently. The teacher creates such a problem before the learner, which arouses so much attention in the learners that they start solving their problems by formulating and testing their hypothesis as a result of their motivation and activeness.

VARIOUS METHODS IN TEACHING

We generally use 2 methods or approaches in teaching:
  1. Teacher Centred Approach
  2. student-centered Approach

Teacher Centred Approach

Teachers are the main authority figure in this model. Students are viewed as ‘empty vessels’ whose primary role is to passively receive information (via lectures and direct information) with an end goal of testing and assessment. It is the primary role of teachers to pass knowledge and information to their students. In this model, teaching and assessment are viewed as two separate entitles. Student learning is measured through a scored test assessment.

student-centered Approach

While teachers are an authority figure in this model, teachers and students play an equally active role in the learning process. The teacher's primary role is to coach and facilitate learning and overall comprehension of the material.

Functions of a Teacher

Teachers play vital roles in the lives of the student in their classrooms.

The following functions that are performed by the teacher in the classroom, school, and community are:
  • Planning activities and instructions: Teachers play multiple roles as a planner of activities and classroom instructions.
  • Resourcing knowledge: The most common role a teacher plays in the classroom is to teach knowledge to learners.
  • Creating a classroom environment: The function of a teacher in creating a positive classroom environment is very important.
  • Supporting Student’s Interaction: The most important function of a teacher involves interacting with learners.
  • Mentoring: Mentoring is a way a teacher encourages students to strive to be the best they can.

What is the role of the Teacher in the Teaching-Learning Process

  • Teacher as a Model: Teacher serve as role models not only when they teach students or while they perform their duties, but also when they fulfill their role as a teacher in the classroom.
  • Teacher as a Facilitator: Learners play the role of an active participant in the teaching-learning process and teachers conduct classes based on experiment and practice using simulation, role–play, dramatization, strip story, group work, pair work, elicitation, and project work. Hence, teachers are more popularly known as facilitators.
  • Teacher as a Negotiator: One of the most important skills teachers need for classroom management is negotiation. The teachers could develop and utilize their skill of negotiation With students, Between students, With parents, and With other professionals
  • Teacher as a Co-Learner: Teacher as a Co-Learner
    • Promote and model digital citizenship and responsibility
    • Design and develop digital age learning experiences and assessments
    • Engage in professional growth and leadership
    • Model digital age work and learning
  • Teacher as a Reflective Practitioner: Reflective teaching means looking at what you do in the classroom, thinking about why you do it, and thinking about if it works – a process of self – observation and self – evaluation. Every teacher has a professional responsibility to be reflective and evaluative about their practice.
  • Teacher as a Classroom Researcher: The concept of teacher as the researcher is that idea that classroom teachers conduct their own studies to improve their teaching practices
Further References:

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