Bloom's Taxonomy

Bloom Taxonomy


Tables of Content:


- History of Bloom's Taxonomy
- Meaning, Concept, and Introduction to Bloom Taxonomy
- Basis of Bloom Taxonomy
- 3 Domains of Blooms Taxonomy ( Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Domain)
- Revised Bloom's Taxonomy
- Difference Between Orignal and Revised Bloom Taxonomy
- PPT and PDF for Bloom's Taxonomy

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Bloom's Taxonomy of Instructional and Educational Objectives in Cognitive / Affective and Psychomotor Domain

History, Meaning, Concept, and Introduction to Bloom's Taxonomy

First of all, let us know the meaning of Taxonomy...

Meaning of Taxonomy: Taxonomy means a system of classification. Taxonomy is a term derived from the Greek Word "taxis", meaning arrangement and "names" meaning law. In this derivative sense" Taxonomy means a lawful or orderly arrangement.

--> Instructional and Educational Objectives are classified according to the kind or level of learning.


Brief History of Bloom Taxonomy: ( Contribution of B.S Bloom)

  • Professor Benjamin S. Bloom of the University of Chicago ( USA) is the pioneer in Bloom's Taxonomy.
  • Bloom was the editor of the first volume of the taxonomy of educational objectives (1956).
  • Bloom (1956) and his associates in the University of Chicago have produced a most important classification of the taxonomy of cognitive objectives ( Bloom 1956), Affective Objectives ( Krathwehl, Bloom and Masia 1964), and Psycho Motor Objectives (Simpson 1969).
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B.S. Bloom
  • There are so many models of classification of objectives have been developed. The most conceiving Taxonomical Model of Educational Objectives was developed by B.S. Bloom and his associates in ( 1956). BS Bloom was the editor of the first volume of "Taxonomy" of educational objectives", produced by an American committee of college and university examiners.
  • In 1995, B.S. Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists. they produced a handbook " The Taxonomy of educational objectives; Handbook (1956)". It was intended only to focus on one of the cognitive domain.
  • The 2nd Volume, "Handbook-II: Affective Domain: which is edited by Krathwohl as published in 1964. Substitute domain taxonomy has been published by various authors like Simpson, Harrrow (1972) and Dave( 1975).



Basis Of Bloom Taxonomy :

There is four Basis of Bloom's Taxonomy:
  1. Educational Base
  2. Logical Base
  3. Psychological Base
  4. Cumulative Base

Blooms Taxonomy of Educational and Instructional Objectives:

Bloom's Taxonomy has been divided into three Parts:
  1. Cognitive Objective - Benjamin Bloom 1956)
  2. Affective Objective - Krathwal, Bloom and Masia 1964)
  3. Psychomotor Objective - Simpson (1989) and Harrow

Meaning of Bloom Taxonomy:

--> Bloom Taxonomy is the systematic classification of educational objective in a similar way as Dewey's decimal system tends to classify a number of books in a library.

In Bloom's Taxonomy Behaviour Is divided into 3 Domains.
  1. Cognitive
  2. Affective
  3. Psychomotor 

The weakness of Bloom Taxonomy in Cognitive Domain: It doesn't state objectives in terms of terminal Behaviour i.e. What the learner should be able to do at the end of teaching.


What is Bloom's Taxonomy?

Domains of Behavior in Bloom taxonomy:

  • Cognitive (Knowing) 
  • Affective (Feeling) 
  • Psychomotor (Doing)    


Now Let us Know the Exact Meaning of Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor Domain in Bloom Taxonomy:          
  1. Cognitive Domain: ( Knowing) Here the teacher is interested in what will the students do, focus on mind, includes objectives which deal with the recognition of knowledge and development of intellectual abilities and skills.
  2. Affective Domain: (Focus on Emotions or affect) It includes objectives which explain the interests, aptitudes, and change in values. Here the teacher is additionally concerned with what do to it or with it
  3. Psychomotor Domain: (Doing / Focus on the body) It includes motor skills area. It is concerned with How He Does It.

Categories or Levels in Bloom's Taxonomy Cognitive Domain are:

There is 6 Objective of Bloom Taxonomy in Cognitive Domain:
  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehension
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation
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Bloom Taxonomy



Bloom's Taxonomy of Objectives in the Cognitive Domain Sub Divisions:

1. Knowledge
- Knowledge of Specific
- Knowledge of Terminology
- Knowledge of Specific Facts
- Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics.
   - Knowledge of conventions
   - Knowledge of Trends and sequences
   - Knowledge of Classification and categories
   - Knowledge of Criteria
   - Knowledge of methodology
- Knowledge of Universals and Abstractions in a field.
  - Knowledge of principles and generalizations
  - knowledge of theories and structures
    2. Comprehension
    - Translation
    - Interpretation
    - Extrapolation

    3. Application
    4. Analysis
    - Analysis of elements
    - Analysis of relationships
    - Analysis of organizational principles

    5. Synthesis
    Production of unique communication
    - Production of a plan or a proposed set of operations
    - Derivation of a set of abstract


    6. Evaluation
    Judgment in terms of internal evidence
    - Judgment in terms of eternal criteria




    Meaning of All the Terms Used in Cognitive Domain of Bloom's Taxonomy:

      1. Knowledge: This is the lowest level of the cognitive domain. At this level, the students are expected to recall the information asked in the provided question.
      2. Comprehension: It is the second level. A teacher trying to develop comprehension power in the students through three kinds of intellectual skills like translation, interpretation, and extrapolation.
      3. Application: It is the third level. It is the act of applying some abstraction to new or unique concrete examples, without prompting.
      4. Analysis: Analysis is used to find out similarities and differences between various things.
      5. Synthesis: Synthesis means the creation of something new from previously existing elements or principles.
      6. Evaluation: It is the highest level of the cognitive domain. This level means the formulation of judgment and the justification of that judgment by reference to various facts, different examples or criteria.

      Bloom Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in Affective Domain:

      --> The affective domain includes emotions, attitudes, feelings, values, morals.

      Five Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy in Affective Domain are:

      1. Receiving
      2. Responding
      3. Valuing
      4. Organization
      5. Characterization by a value or value complex

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      Bloom Taxonomy Affective Domain


      Further Sub Division of Affective Domain is:

      1. Receiving (attending)
          - Awareness
          - willingness to receive
          - controlled or selected attention
        2. Responding
            - Acquiescence in responding
            - Willingness to respond
            - Satisfaction in response
          3. Valuing
              - acceptance of a value
               - preference for a value
              - commitment
            4. Organization
                - The conceptualization of a value
                - the organization of a value system
              5. Characterization of a value of the system
                  - generalized set
                  - characterization

              Meaning of All the Levels and Terms in Affective Domain:

              1. Receiving: This category points out towards this necessity and takes into consideration three sequential activities.

               - Firstly, the learning is sensitized or made aware of the existence of certain stimuli.
              - Then the desired intention for receiving the stimuli is created in the learner.
              - At last, the efforts are made for the control of the attention of the learner.

              2. Responding: In this, once the learner receives or attend to a particular idea, events or things, he may be made to respond to its as active as possible.

              3. Valuing: It is concerned with the development of typical value patterns, attitudes, etc.

              4. Organizing: It is concerned with the construction of relatively enduring value structure in the learner by organizing and synthesizing the different patterns imbibed by him from time to time.

              5. Characterization by a value: It is the highest level of affective domain of Bloom Taxonomy. At this stage, the learner is destined to imbibe typical characteristics of his individual character i.e lifestyle of his own. It is the endpoint of the process of education.



                Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives in Psycho-motor Domain:

                There are 5 Levels in Psychomotor Domain:
                1. Imitation
                2. Manipulation
                3. Precision
                4. Articulation
                5. Naturalization
                psycho motor domain in bloom's taxonomy
                Bloom Taxonomy PsychoMotor Domain

                • Imitation: It is the lowest level of the psychomotor domain. It starts as impulse and may grow into an overt act with the capacity to repeat the performance.
                • Manipulation: Manipulation involves selecting a certain action in preference to others, following directions and acting accordingly.
                • Precision: It is related to the speed and refinement giving the learner the ability to control his / her action in response to the requirements.
                • Articulation: AFter attaining the ability of articulation, individuals will be able to handle many actions in unison. This ability involves co-ordination action.
                • Naturalization: It is the final stage or level in which the learner attains perfection in performance or in any task.

                Bloom’s Taxonomy Revised

                During the period of the 1990s, Loring Andeson and psychologist of cognitive group updated the Bloom Taxonomy of educational objective. The revision was very minor but important.

                Lorin Anderson along with Krathwohl revisited the Cognitive domain in the Learning Taxonomy in 2001 and made some changes. 


                Bloom's Revised Taxonomy of Cognitive Domain:

                The two main changes of Revised Bloom Taxonomy are:
                1. Change in the name of the six categories from noun to very forms.
                2. Slightly rearranging them.
                Difference Between Orignal Taxonomy and Revised Bloom Taxonomy

                Evaluation
                Creating
                Synthesis 
                Evaluating
                Analysis 
                Analyzing
                Application 
                Applying
                Comprehension
                Understanding
                Knowledge
                Remembering


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                Bloom Taxonomy Revised



                We can divide The changes in Bloom’s taxonomy into 3 parts:
                1. Terminology
                2. Structure
                3. Empaths
                • Terminology Change in Bloom Taxonomy: There is different terminology used in revised Bloom taxonomy. The revised taxonomy changes the names of all the six levels. The lowest level: Knowledge was remained and modified as remembering. The word: knowledge’ was replaced with the verb remembering
                • Structure change in Revised Bloom’s taxonomy: The first two levels are swapped from the old to the new.
                • Changes in Emphasis: The original or older taxonomy was the best tool which is applied in the younger grades at school. But in the revised taxonomy it is more universal & easily applicable elementary, secondary, senior secondary and adult training.


                The new terms which are defined in Revised Bloom taxonomy are:

                • Remembering: Retrieving, recognizing, & recalling the relevant knowledge from long term memory. This level is based on simply remembering or recalling previous leaned information
                • Understanding: Understanding includes the construction of meaning from oral, written & graphic messages through the interpretation, exemplification, classification, summarization, inferring, comparing and explaining. It is basically demonstrating the understating of information by explaining ideas and concepts.
                • Applying: Applied is using a procedure by executing and implementing. It is basically using the information in another similar or familiar situation.
                • Analyzing: Analyzing means breaking material into the constituent parts, and determining how the parts are related to one another and to the overall structure through differentiation, organizing and attributing.
                • Evaluating: Evaluating is making a judgment based on the criteria and standards through checking and critiquing. This includes justifying a decision or justifying a course of action.
                • Creating: Creating means putting elements together for form a functional while; and reorganizing elements into a new pattern or structure through generation, planning and producing. Creating includes generating new products, ideas, and ways of viewing things.


                The revised Bloom's Taxonomy  can also be explained in the Following Way:

                • Remembering: Can the student recall or remember the information?
                • Understanding: Can the students explain ideas or concepts?
                • Applying: CAn the student use the information in a new way?
                • Analyzing: Can the student distinguish between the different parts?
                • Evaluating: Can the student justify a stand or decision?
                • Creating: CAn the student create new product or point of view?

                To be concluded this revised taxonomy of cognitive objectives, given by Anderson reflects relevance to 21st Century work. It reflects a more active form of thinking and is more accurate.



                Bloom's Taxonomy PPT and PDF

                Here are the short notes of psychology in PPT Form. The Topics which are covered in the PPT and PDF of Blooms Taxonomy are mentioned below. There is a download button given at the end of the post where you can easily download.

                Topics Covered in PPT and PDF

                1. Bloom’s Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives
                2. Benjamin Bloom
                3. Taxonomy?
                4. Three domains of educational activities
                5. The Cognitive Domain
                6. Affective Domain
                7. Psychomotor Domain
                8. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy
                9. Affective Domain


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                How to reference this article:
                Pooja.A,. Bloom's Taxonomy. Retrieved from https://www.learningclassesonline.com/2019/08/blooms-taxonomy.html

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