PEDAGOGY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE [ Teaching of Physical Science ]

PEDAGOGY OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE [ Teaching of Physical Science ]

Physical Science is the concerned human effort to understand, or to understand better, the history of the natural world and how the natural world works with observable physical evidence as the basis of that understanding.


Pedagogy of Physical Science or teaching of physical science subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

MEANING OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Physical Science is a branch of science (a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe.)

Physical science is the study of matter and energy. That covers a lot of territories because matter refers to all the stuff that exists in the universe. It includes everything you can see and many things that you cannot see, including the air around you.


NATURE OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE

The nature and scope of physical science can very well be explained with the help of the following attributes. They are:

  1. Systematic and Understandable
  2. Accuracy
  3. Validity
  4. Subject to Change
  5. Durability
  6. Unable to Provide Complete Answers to All the Questions
  7. The mixture of Logic and Imagination

SCOPE OF PHYSICAL SCIENCE

  • Physical science deals with the natural world, the realm of nature, matter, and energy.
  • Physical science is not limited to only what is observable.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING PHYSICAL SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS

AIMS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL SCIENCE

  • To know about the facts and principles of  Physical science and its applications.
  • To acquire the skills and understand the methods of processes that lead to the generation and validation of scientific knowledge.
  • To develop a historical and developmental perspective of Physical science.
  • To relate Physical science education to the environment.
  • To acquire the requisite theoretical knowledge and practical technical skills to enter the world of work.
  • To nurture the natural curiosity, aesthetic sense, and creativity in science and technology.
  • To imbibe the values of honesty, integrity, cooperation, concern for life, and preservation of the environment.
  • To cultivate scientific temper, objectivity, and critical thinking.

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING PHYSICAL SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS

  1. To develop the power of observation
  2. To develop good character
  3. To develop a habit of personal, family, and society cleanliness
  4. To develop a scientific outlook
  5. To develop a practical outlook
  6. To develop the skill of manipulation

VALUES OF TEACHING PHYSICAL SCIENCE

  1. Intellectual Value: Physical Science helps pupils to think of problems, and follow the method of inquiry.

  2. Utilitarian Value: It is very essential to have some elementary knowledge of Physical science for becoming a full member of society.

  3. Vocational Value: Knowledge of Physical science forms the basis for many vocational studies like medicine, engineering, agriculture, or any other profession.

  4. Cultural Value: Physical Science has aided the growth of consciousness by making us more aware of the universe we live in.

  5. Moral Value: It teaches the pupil to be intellectually honest and truthful.

  6. Aesthetic Value: Aesthetic sense is the most important consideration with all scientific men for it meets one of the deepest needs of human nature which manifests itself as the desire for beauty.


LESSON PLANNING

Planning is an essential activity for an effective teacher. The form of the plan may change according to the educational purpose of the planner. It helps the teacher to be systematic and orderly.

A lesson plan is a plan showing the teaching points, specification to be achieved, organization of learning activities in detail, and the actual test items to which students are to be exposed.

Steps Involved in Lesson – Planning

Herbart, J.F (1776-1841) suggested six formal steps for the development of a lesson plan.
  1. Preparation or introduction
  2. Presentation
  3. Comparison or Association
  4. Generalization
  5. Application
  6. Recapitulation

BLOOMS TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

Bloom's Taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators chaired by Benjamin Bloom who also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals.

The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives has been classified into 3 Domains:

  1. Cognitive Domain
  2. Affective Domain
  3. Psychomotor Domain

TYPES OF TEST ITEMS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE

  • Essay Test
  • Short-Answer Question
  • Objective Type Question
  • Multiple Choice Questions
  • True or False Question
  • Matching Question

TEACHING SKILLS IN PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Ban (1961) has exactly remarked that “teaching means many different things, that the teaching act varies from person to person and from situation to situation”.

Teaching is an activity like;

  • Imparting knowledge or skill,
  • It is a social act of influence, and
  • It is doing anything and everything that may lead to learning.

Types of Teaching Skills

  1. Skill of Introduction
  2. Skill of Explaining
  3. Skill of Questioning
  4. The skill of Varying the Stimulus
  5. Non-Verbal Cues
  6. Skill of Reinforcement
  7. Skill of Closure
  8. The skill of Fluency in Communication

WHAT IS MINI- TEACHING?

Mini-teaching is actual classroom teaching. Mini teaching is much smaller than the usual teaching.

There is a difference between micro-teaching and mini teaching.

  • Microteaching breaks teaching into a set of decreases and isolated skills.
  • Whereas mini teaching emphasizes the mastery and integration of teaching skills in a short lesson in a smaller class than the used one.

In mini teaching, a student practices a mini-lesson teaches to a minimum at co peers for 15-20 minutes. Mini teaching can be practiced with real students. If students available from model schools attached to the college of education.


METHODS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Method refers to the way of delivering knowledge and transmitting scientific skills by a teacher to his pupils. Methods of teaching physical science can be classified into two types

  1. Teacher-centered
  2. Pupil Centered

TEACHER CENTERED METHODS

  • Lecture Method
  • Demonstration Method
  • Team Teaching

LEARNER CENTRED METHODS

  • Laboratory Method
  • Project Method
  • Peer Tutoring
  • Individual Activities
  • Experiential Method
  • Teacher Guided Learning
  • Problem Solving Method
  • Whole-Class Interactive Learning
  • Student Seminar
  • Group Discussion
  • Mixed Ability Grouping

RESOURCES FOR TEACHING PHYSICAL SCIENCE

There are various forms of print, audio, visual, ICT, and community resources that we can use in the physical science classrooms. Some of them are

  1. Newspapers
  2. Journals and Magazines
  3. Encyclopedias
  4. Audio Tapes
  5. Compact Disc (CD)
  6. DVD/CD
  7. Pictures
  8. FlashCards
  9. Charts
  10. Photographs
  11. Models
  12. Radio
  13. Television
  14. Internet
  15. Multimedia
  16. Interactive White Board
  17. Community Resources
  18. Physical Science Centers
  19. Physical Science Exhibition/ Fair
  20. Field Trip

QUALITIES OF A GOOD PHYSICAL SCIENCE TEXTBOOK

In the teaching-learning process, the text-book occupies an important place. There is a saying

“As is the text-book, so is the teaching and learning”.

A good text-book can even replace classroom teaching.

Thurber and Collette suggested six criteria for choosing a good textbook. They are

  1. Content
  2. Organization
  3. Literary style vocabulary
  4. Illustrations
  5. Teaching aids
  6. Mechanical makeup and appearance

QUALITIES OF A GOOD PHYSICAL SCIENCE TEACHER

Besides possessing the personal qualities, every Physical science teacher should fulfill the following broad requirements.

  • A physical science teacher must have practical knowledge of child psychology and of the process of learning. Knowledge of child psychology helps a teacher to guide the students according to their interests, capabilities, and help in educational, vocational, and personal problems.
  • A Physical science teacher must be trained in modern methods and techniques of science.
  • A Physical science teacher must fulfill basic academic requirements.
Further References:

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