PEDAGOGY OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE [ Teaching of Biological Science ]

PEDAGOGY OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE [ Teaching of Biological Science ]

The science which deals with the study of living objects is called Biology. Thus, the subject involves the studies of all kinds of micro-organisms, plants and animals.


PEDAGOGY OF BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE or Teaching of Biological Science and biology subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

WHAT IS BIOLOGY?

Biology is a natural science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, identification, and taxonomy.

Biology literally means "the study of life".

Though biology involves the study of life, nowadays it is mostly centralized with the study of

  • Agriculture,
  • Animal husbandry,
  • Health and microbiology and related branches.

Today study of any branch of biological science is not possible in isolation as it also involves principles of physics, chemistry, and various other branches.


NATURE AND SCOPE OF BIOLOGY

  • In a progressive forward-looking society, Biology can play a truly liberating role, helping people out of the vicious circle of poverty, ignorance, and superstition.
  • Biology, tempered with wisdom, is the surest and the only way to human welfare.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE IN SCHOOLS

  1. Acquisition of knowledge and understanding
  2. Development of skills
  3. Development of scientific attitude
  4. Development of thinking abilities
  5. Nurturing curiosity
  6. Nurturing creativity
  7. Nurturing aesthetic sense
  8. Development of Problem-solving skill

NEED, IMPORTANCE, AND SIGNIFICANCE OF TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

  • The knowledge gained through biological science is much more useful in guiding our lifestyle.
  • The study of biological science provides us the opportunity of developing our mental faculties.
  • Biological Science develops our personality as a whole.
  • It inculcates the spirit of inquiry, seriousness, and systematic thinking.
  • It brings about the total transformation of one’s viewpoint.
  • Biological Science not only develops our culture but also helps in preserving it.
  • Biological Science helps us to utilize our leisure purposefully.
  • Biological Science makes a man a useful citizen.
  • Biological Science has opened vast vistas of vocations.
  • The study of Biological science fulfills the psychological needs of man and helps in the evolution of natural curiosity.
  • With the knowledge of science, we learn to think logically and solve a problem.
  • Biological Science helps to learn about how the earth functions, and how to make use of natural resources.

VALUES OF TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

  1. Utilitarian Value
  2. Intellectual Value
  3. Disciplinary Value
  4. Cultural Value
  5. Moral Value
  6. Aesthetic Value
  7. Social Value
  8. Vocational Value
  9. Psychological Value

PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION IN BIOLOGY TEACHING

Planning is essential in any sort of activity and more so when a teacher is going to a classroom for teaching a subject.

Before going to the classroom, the teacher has to select the appropriate method for teaching the topic and also the proper teaching aid which will help the learner to understand the concepts in the topic. This is sometimes called planning the strategy.


Lesson Plan

In the words of Lester B. Stands. “A lesson plan is actually a plan of action. It includes the working philosophy of the teacher, his knowledge of philosophy, his knowledge about students, objectives, material to be taught and his ability to utilize effective methods.”

Components of a Lesson Plan

Teachers should follow specific steps in writing lesson plans.

  1. Preparation or Introduction
  2. Presentation
  3. Comparison or Association
  4. Generalization
  5. Application
  6. Recapitulation

UNIT PLAN

“A unit may be defined as a means of organizing materials for instructional purposes which utilizes significant subject matter content, involve pupils learning activities through active participation intellectually and physically and modifies the pupil’s behavior to the extent that he is able to cope with new problems and situations more competently”. H.C. Morrison

What is a Unit?

A unit is a large subdivision of subject matter with a common fabric of knowledge. The unit is not just blocks of subject matter but is composed of both method and content.


Steps in Unit Planning

  1. Content analysis (the What of the unit)
  2. Objectives with specifications (the Why of the unit)
  3. Learning activities (the How of the unit)
  4. Testing procedures (evidence of achievement)

BLOOMS TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

The taxonomy of educational objectives is intended to provide the classification of goals of our educational systems. The idea of classification of educational objectives was given by Dr. Benjamin S Bloom of Chicago University USA.

He classified educational objectives into three main areas or domains called:

  1. Cognitive
  2. Affective
  3. Psychomotor

TYPES OF TEST ITEMS IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

  • Objective Type test item
  • True – False Items
  • Multiple-choice Test Items
  • Matching Type Test Item
  • Short Answer Type
  • Essay Type

TEACHING SKILLS IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

Teaching includes all the activities of providing education to others. The person who provides education is called the teacher.

Teaching skill is a group of teaching acts or behaviors intended to facilitate student’s learning directly or indirectly.


MAJOR TEACHING SKILLS

  1. Introducing
  2. Explaining
  3. Questioning
  4. Skill of closure
  5. Skill of Reinforcement
  6. The skill of varying the stimulus

MINI-LESSON

It is a teaching training technique for learning teaching skills. It employs a real teaching situation for developing skills and helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching.

A mini-lesson is a basic precursor to a bigger or broader topic. It is a short lesson that can be taught in just a few minutes, but it can benefit the students in lessons to come.


METHODS OF TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

Method refers to the way of delivering knowledge and transmitting scientific skills by a teacher to his pupils. Methods of teaching biological science can be classified into two types:

  • Teacher –centered
  • Pupil Centered

Categories of “Teaching Methods”

We shall deal with some of the commonly used methods of teaching Biological science. Generally teaching methods can be categorized as follows:

  • Lecture method
  • Demonstration method
  • Team-teaching
  • Laboratory method
  • Project method
  • Peer Tutoring
  • Individual activities
  • Experiential method
  • Teacher-guided learning
  • Problem-solving method
  • Whole class interactive learning
  • Student seminar
  • Group Discussion
  • Mixed-ability grouping

RESOURCES FOR TEACHING BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE

PRINT RESOURCES:

  • Newspaper
  • Magazines
  • Journal
  • Biological Science Encyclopedias

AUDIO RESOURCES:

  • Tape Recorder
  • DVDs/CDs
  • DVD

VISUAL RESOURCES:

  • Pictures
  • Flashcard
  • Charts
  • Posters
  • Photograph
  • Models

ICT RESOURCES:

  • Radio
  • Television
  • Internet
  • Multimedia
  • Interactive Whiteboard

COMMUNITY RESOURCES:

  • Zoological gardens
  • Botanical garden
  • Eco-Park
  • Aquarium
  • Biological Science exhibition/fair
  • Fieldtrip

QUALITIES OF A GOOD BIOLOGY TEXTBOOK

Textbooks are the most widely used of all instructional materials. Now a day’s textbook has become a course of study.

A good text-book can even replace classroom teaching. The biological science text-book should aim at aiding the pupils in the development of their personalities, in developing open-mindedness, developing appreciation and understanding of nature, and not merely stuffing their minds with facts.


QUALITIES OF A BIOLOGY TEACHER:

  1. Enthusiastic about teaching students the subject matter.
  2. Treats students with respect and designs curricula to meet the needs of all students.
  3. Relates subject matter to students' lives.
  4. Sets an example of integrity inside and outside the classroom.
  5. Stresses concept learning rather than rote memory.
  6. Teaches students how to learn, analyze, and think critically.
  7. keeps up-to-date on the subject matter.
  8. Maintains competence in the life science fields.
  9. Teaches useful lab techniques and lab safety.
  10. Creates an exciting classroom atmosphere.
  11. Acquires up-to-date equipment for laboratory work.
  12. Joins committees to improve the school, department, himself/herself.
  13. Generates new and exciting ideas for students to think about.
  14. Encourages students to ask questions about the lesson.
  15. Maintains a safe and clean classroom laboratory.
  16. Knows how to administer first aid in case of accidents.
Further References:

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