PEDAGOGY OF HISTORY [ Teaching of History ]

PEDAGOGY OF HISTORY [ Teaching of History ]

“History is the present thought about the past, history is thought and nothing else” - Croce.


Pedagogy of History or teaching of history subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

MEANING OF HISTORY

History is often said to be the “queen” or “mother” of the social sciences.

The term history is derived from the Greek word ‘Historia’ meaning ‘information’ or ‘an inquiry conducted to find the truth’. The other meaning is ‘what has actually passed or happened’.

“History is not simply information regarding the affairs of the kings who have passed away but a science which explains the intellect and furnishes the wise with examples.” Tarikh-i-Daudi

NATURE OF HISTORY

  1. History is the study of man.
  2. It is concerned with man in time.
  3. It is concerned with man in space also.
  4. It explains the present.
  5. It is a dialogue between the events of the past and progressively emerging future ends.
  6. It is the story of the growth of human consciousness, both in its individual and collective aspects.

SCOPE OF HISTORY

  • The scope of history is from local history to national and from national to international.
  • The knowledge of the child should not be limited to the events of his own country. It should be extended to the study of the history of other countries because the events and the problem of a particular country are sure to affect the whole world.

AIMS OF TEACHING HISTORY

  1. To promote self-understanding
  2. To give a proper conception of time, space, and society
  3. To enable the pupils to assess the values and achievement of their own age
  4. To teach tolerance
  5. It is a storehouse of wisdom
  6. Development of memory, imagination, and reasoning power

OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING HISTORY

  • Knowledge: The pupil should acquire knowledge of terms, concepts, facts, events, symbols, ideas, conventions, problems, trends, personalities, chronology, and generalizations, etc., related to the study of history.

  • Understanding: The pupil should develop an understanding of terms, facts, principal events, trends, etc., related to the study of history.

  • Critical Thinking: The subject should enable the pupils to develop critical thinking.

  • Practical Skills: The subject enables the pupils to develop practical skills helpful in the study and understanding of historical facts

  • Interests: The subject should enable the pupils to develop an interest in the study of history.


NEED AND IMPORTANCE OF TEACHING HISTORY

  1. History Helps Us Understand People and Societies
  2. It Has Important in Our Own Lives Also
  3. History Contributes to Moral Understanding
  4. History Provides Identity
  5. Studying History Is Essential for Good Citizenship

What Skills Does a Student of History Develop?

  • The Ability to Assess Evidence
  • The Ability to Assess Conflicting Interpretations
  • Experience in Assessing Past Examples of Change

VALUES OF TEACHING HISTORY

  1. Disciplinary Value
  2. Informative Value
  3. Educational Value
  4. Ethical Value
  5. Cultural Value
  6. Political Value
  7. Nationalistic Value
  8. Internationalistic Value
  9. Vocational Value

PLANNING FOR INSTRUCTION

Organized planning always plays a substantial role in the execution of any task in our life. The same is equally true for the process of teaching-learning.

The teachers who plan their work properly are quite efficient and effective in their teaching tasks. This is why; a history teacher should concentrate on wise planning of his teaching and instructional work carried along with his students during the whole session.


UNIT PLANNING

Unit planning stands for the planning of the instructional work of the session by dividing the prescribed syllabus into some well-defined and meaningful units.

Carter V. Good: “Unit may be described as an organization of various activities, experiences and types of learning around a central problem or purpose developed comparatively by a group of pupils under teacher-leadership.”

LESSON PLANNING

In simple words, lesson planning in history means the planning of a daily lesson related to a particular unit of the subject history to be covered by the history teacher in a specific school period for the realization of some stipulated instructional objectives.


BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES IN THE COGNITIVE DOMAIN

  1. Knowledge
  2. Comprehensions
  3. Application
  4. Analysis
  5. Synthesis
  6. Evaluation

TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES IN THE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN

  1. Receiving
  2. Responding
  3. Valuing
  4. Organization
  5. Characterization

TAXONOMY OF OBJECTIVES IN THE PSYCHOMOTOR DOMAIN

  1. Imitation
  2. Manipulation
  3. Precision
  4. Articulation
  5. Naturalization

TYPES OF TEST ITEMS IN HISTORY

  • Written paper and pencil tests
    • Essay type tests
    • Short answers type tests
    • Objective type tests
  • Oral test
  • Practical test

TEACHING SKILLS IN HISTORY

Teaching skills can be defined as a set of interrelated component teaching behaviors for the realization of specific instructional objectives.

Major teaching skills are:

  • Introducing
  • Explaining
  • Questioning
  • Varying the Stimulus
  • Non-verbal cues
  • Reinforcement
  • Closure and fluency in communication


METHODS OF TEACHING HISTORY

Teacher-Centered Methods

  • Lecture Method
  • Demonstration Method
  • Team Teaching

Source Method

An investigation of the original sources of history by the students is called the source method.

Classification of sources

The sources of history are in fact the traces left by human beings in the past. There exist a variety of sources that are classified in different ways.

A. Literary sources

  • The Vedas
  • Epics
  • The Dharmasastras
  • The Puranas
  • The Buddhist Literature
  • The Jain Literature
  • The Arthashastra Of Kautilya
  • Patanjali Mahabhashya

B. The Secular Literature

  • The Private Literature
  • The Official Literature

C. Archaeology Sources


Learner-Centered Methods

  • Project Method
  • Peer Tutoring
  • Individual activities
  • Experiential learning

RESOURCES FOR TEACHING HISTORY

PRINT RESOURCES

  • Newspapers
  • Journals
  • Magazines
  • Reference Books
  • History /Humanities Encyclopedias

AUDIO RESOURCES

  • Radio Talk
  • Audio Tapes

VISUAL RESOURCES

  • Cartoons
  • Charts
  • Comics
  • Flashcards
  • Graphs
  • Maps
  • Pictures
  • Posters
  • Diagrams
  • Models
  • Specimens

ICT RESOURCE

  • Radio
  • Television

COMMUNITY RESOURCES

  • Fieldtrips
  • Museum
  • Library
  • Excavated Archeological Sites
  • Monuments
  • History Club

QUALITIES OF A HISTORY TEACHER

History is a subject that involves observation of historical events and places, collection of old and new data, analysis, and generalization, etc. The direction and guidance of such a teacher are very necessary.

In order to be successful and to realize the objectives of history teaching and to discharge his functions properly and adequately, he should be a person of wide reading and culture and possess certain qualifications which are mentioned as under:

  1. Academic preparation
  2. Knowledge of various methods of teaching
  3. Mastery of the subject and techniques
  4. Knowledge of child psychology
  5. Power to excite the imagination
  6. Keen power of observation and imagination
  7. Knowledge of various methods of teaching
  8. Knowledge of child psychology
  9. Personality
  10. Professional training
  11. He should have a love for excursions and tours
  12. He should take interest in the collection of things of historical importance
  13. Knowledge of current affairs
Further References:

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