Critical Understanding of ICT

Critical Understanding of ICT

The Term, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Refer to Forms of Technologies That Are Used to Create, Store, Share or Transmit, Exchange Information.


Critical Understanding of ICT and Information and Communication Technology subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY

Educational Technology is a new area like educational philosophy, educational sociology, educational psychology, measurement, and evaluation in education.

Educational Technology provides the basis for the planning and organization of resources for learning and helps in achieving the teaching objectives.

Educational Technology defines teaching- objectives in behavioral terms. It is that science on the basis of which various methods and techniques are developed and constructed in order to achieve pre-determined teaching objectives. Thus, when the teaching objectives get determined, then educational technology comes into existence to achieve them.

"Educational Technology is the application of scientific knowledge and learning and the conditions of learning to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of teaching and training."- G.O. Leith
"Educational Technology may be defined as the application of the laws as well as recent discoveries of Science and Technology to the process of education." - S.S. Kulkarni

Objectives of Educational Technology

The main objectives of Educational Technology are:

  1. To modernize the learning methods and techniques.
  2. To bring about desirable modifications in the behaviors of the teachers and pupils.
  3. To make the classrooms teaching easy, clear, interesting, and effective.
  4. To help in increasing various facilities by solving the most complicated problems of human life.
  5. To identify the educational needs and aspirations of the community.

Characteristics of Educational Technology

The characteristics of Educational Technology are as follows:

  • Educational technology is based on the application of scientific knowledge.
  • Educational Technology has contributed to developing various methods, for example, micro-teaching method, simulated teaching, and programmed learning method.
  • In the field of educational technology, psychology, science, technology, system, art, audio-visual aids, and machines are used.
  • Educational technology is helpful in making the teaching process objective, easy, clear, interesting, and scientific.
  • Educational technology encourages learning by controlling the environment.

Challenges of Educational Technology

Today technological influence is so much that every aspect is going by e-electronic i.e. right from E-content, E-library, E-learning strategies, E-classroom, E-learning tools, and technologies like Moodle, lecture cast, web conferencing, and so on.

The following factors are the challenges of educational technology:

  • Inadequate hardware and software
  • Training in technology to teachers
  • Personal factors preventing teachers to use technologies
  • Teacher Attitude
  • Challenge of new models of teaching
  • Technical support for technology use and maintenance

INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

Information Technology (IT) is a label that has two meanings.

In common usage, the term “information technology” is often used to refer to all of computing. As a technical term, it refers to a vast set of tools, processes, and methodologies and associated equipment employed to collect, process, and present information.

In broad terms, it also includes

  • Office Automation,
  • Multimedia And
  • Telecommunications

COMMUNICATION

Communication is a basic prerequisite of all human performance and interaction

Etymologically speaking, the word communication is derived from a root word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’, i.e. it reveals that it is an act of sharing commonness or common understanding with others or between two individuals or groups or organizations.

Communication refers to the transmission of thoughts, information and commands by employing the sensory channels.

Communication is a process of sharing or exchange of experiences, information, views, opinions, ideas, sentiments, thoughts, feelings, and so on, between the source of communication and the receiver through the same means, media.


Process of Communication

The process of communication is a two-way process. It happens between two persons one to one or one to many in group communication.

Process of communication is:

  1. Source of Communication or Message
  2. Contents of Communication or Message
  3. Media or Channel of communication
  4. The receiver of the communication
  5. Feedback/ Response

Barriers of Communication

Any kind of distraction or disturbance between the sender and receiver would break the communication. Such disturbances are called Communication Barriers.

Some of the barriers to communication are:

  • External Barriers
  • Internal Barriers
  • Physical Barriers
  • Language Barriers
  • Psychological Barriers
  • Background Barriers

Types of Communication

  • Verbal Communication
  • Oral Language
  • Written Language
  • Non-Verbal Communication
  • Facial Expressions
  • Language of Eye
  • Body Language

INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT)

Information and communication technology (ICT) is defined as the implementation of different branches of technology in information and communication processing.

ICT stand for Information and Communication Technologies and are defined, as a “diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, and to create, disseminate, store, and manage information.”

These technologies include

  • Computers,
  • Internet,
  • Broadcasting technologies (radio and television), and
  • Telephony

Reasons for The Use of ICT in Education

  1. ICT assists students in accessing digital information
  2. ICT promotes collaborative learning in a distance-learning environment
  3. ICT offers opportunities to develop critical thinking skills.
  4. ICT produces a creative learning environment.
  5. ICT improves the quality of teaching and learning.
  6. ICT supports teaching by facilitating access to course content.

PROGRAMMED LEARNING

Smith and Moore (1962), “Programmed instruction is the process of arranging the material to be learned into a series of sequential steps, usually it moves the student from a familiar background into a complex and new set of concepts, principles and understanding.”

Principles of Programmed Learning

  1. Principles of Small Steps
  2. Principle of Active Responding
  3. Principles of Immediate Confirmation
  4. Principle of Self-Pacing

ICT IN TEACHER EDUCATION

The role of teachers has changed and continues to change from being an instructor to become a constructor, facilitator, coach, and creator of the learning environment.

Requirements of Teacher’s in the ICT ERA

Today’s teachers are required to be;

  • Open-minded
  • Critical independent professionals
  • Active cooperators and collaborators and
  • Mediators between learners and what they need to know

New Competencies

For teachers to be able to integrate the use of ICTs in teaching various skills, they need to be developed in a vast array of competence such as:

  1. Operating computers
  2. Using basic software for word processing, spreadsheets, email, etc.
  3. Evaluation and using computers and related ICT tools for instruction
  4. Creating effective computer-based presentations
  5. Searching the internet for resources
  6. Integrating the ICT tools into student learning activities across the curriculum
  7. Creating multimedia documents to support instruction
  8. Keeping up-to-date far as educational technology is concerned

INTEGRATION OF ICT IN TEACHING AND LEARNING

At the school level, Integrating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the Teaching-Learning Process involves the following steps:

  1. Awareness
  2. Fundamental Knowledge
  3. Proper Training
  4. Implementation
  5. Follow–up Activities

Opportunities for Integrating ICTs in Education

Modern universities and institutes have a mission to make the teaching-learning process effective and interesting. A study of the use of ICTs in education, reveals the following opportunities:

  1. Improved Teaching-Learning Process
  2. Increased Availability of Study Material
  3. Support for Distance Education and E-Learning
  4. Improved Admission and Examination Process
  5. Help in Research Activities

Barriers in ICT Integration into Teacher Education

The following are the key barriers in ICT Integration into teaching and teacher training:

  • Lack of Teacher Motivation
  • Lack of Teacher Confidence
  • Lack of Teacher Competence
  • Teachers’ Negative Attitude
  • Teachers’ Resistance to Change
  • Lack of Time in School
  • Lack of Effective Training
  • Lack of ICT Infrastructure
  • Lack of Technical Support

ICT FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN EDUCATION AND TEACHER TRAINING

Improving the quality of education and training is a critical issue, particularly at a time of educational expansion.

ICT can enhance the quality of education in several ways:

  • By increasing learner motivation and engagement
  • By facilitating the acquisition of basic skills
  • And by enhancing teacher training

ICT FOR PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF TEACHERS

Professional development refers to a variety of activities, both formal and informal, designed for the personal and professional growth of teachers and administrators.

It includes

  • Individual development,
  • Continuing education, and
  • In-service education or staff development, as well as,
  • Curriculum writing,
  • Peer collaboration,
  • Study groups,
  • Peer coaching or mentoring,
  • Classroom visitation,
  • Attendance of conferences,
  • Action research,
  • Publication of papers, etc.

COMPUTER FUNDAMENTALS

Computer education forms a part of the school and college curriculum, as it is important for every individual today, to have the basic knowledge of computers.


Meaning of Computer

A computer is an electronic device that computes or calculates numbers. In other words, a computer is an electronic device with the ability to

  • Accept data supplied by the user
  • Input, store and execute instructions
  • Perform mathematical and logical operation
  • Give results in accordance with the user’s requirement

Characteristic Features of Computers

  • High Speed
  • Accuracy
  • Storage Capacity
  • Repetitiveness
  • Versatility
  • Automatism
  • Endurance
  • Adaptability
  • Cost Efficiency

Types of Computers

Computers are categorized on the basis of size, sort, and performance. The various types of computers are:

  • Microcomputers
  • Personal Computers
  • Laptop Computer
  • Mini Computers
  • Mainframe Computers
  • Supercomputers

Components of Computers

A computer has the following essential components:

  • Input Devices
  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Arithmetic and Logic Unit
  • Control Unit
  • Memory Unit
  • Registers
  • Output Devices

HARDWARE

Hardware is the equipment involved in the function of a computer. Computer hardware consists of components that can physically handle.


SOFTWARE

These are the set of instructions or more generally a collection of computer programs that tell the hardware how to work and perform different tasks on a computer system.


COMPUTER MEMORY

Memory is a major part of computers that categories into several types. Memory is the best storage part for computer users to save information, programs and etc.


OPERATING SYSTEM

An operating system or OS is a software program that enables the computer hardware to communicate and operate with the computer software.

Examples of computer operating systems

  • Microsoft Windows 10
  • Apple macOS
  • Ubuntu Linux
  • Google Android
  • IOS

INTERNET AND EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES

INTERNET

Internet is not only access to websites, these days there is knowledge and information on every aspect of the educational world over the Internet.

The resources provided on various web pages are indeed very informative and useful for professionals and students related to every field of work.

  • Internet is the world’s largest computer network, the network of networks, scattered all over the world.
  • Teachers, students, businessmen, doctors, engineers, scientists, etc. can get recent data from the internet which makes their knowledge up-to-date.
  • Accessing the information through the internet is much faster.
  • Information can be downloaded into the computer and print out can be taken.

E-LEARNING

E-learning is a computer-based educational tool or system that enables us to learn anywhere and at any time. Today e-learning is mostly delivered through the internet.

E-Learning can be defined as 'learning facilitated and supported through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)'.

The term ‘e-learning’ therefore essentially covers the use of computers and technology as a vehicle for knowledge exchange within teaching and learning.


MOBILE-LEARNING (M-Learning)

M-learning is a natural extension to conventional e-learning practice through which mobile technology allows a greater degree of access to learning resources

Mobile learning is defined as “the provision of education and training on mobile devices: Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs), palmtops and handhelds and on smart phones and mobile phones.”

Benefits of Mobile Learning

  • Mobile learning can occur at any place and anytime, and learning content can be accessed anywhere.
  • A mobile learning process is not limited to one particular place.

Disadvantages of Mobile Learning

  • Mobile learning may give opportunities for students to cheat if there is no monitoring system in place to check to cheat.
  • Depending on the network resources and platform, some contents in mobile learning may be rendered outdated because of rapid upgrades from one session to the next.

ON-LINE LEARNING

  • Online learning is a method of delivering educational information via the internet instead of in a physical classroom.
  • Online learning is education that takes place over the Internet.
  • It is often referred to as “e-Learning”.

VIRTUAL CLASSROOM

A virtual classroom is an online classroom that allows participants to communicate with one another, view presentations or videos, interact with other participants, and engage with resources in workgroups.

A virtual classroom is an online learning environment. The environment can be web-based and accessed through a portal or software-based and require a downloadable executable file


SMART CLASSROOM

A smart classroom is a classroom that has an instructor equipped with a computer and audio-visual equipment, allowing the instructor to teach using a wide variety of media.

These include

  • Smart interactive whiteboard,
  • DVDs,
  • PPT's and more,

All displayed through a data projector.


WIKIPEDIA

  • Wikipedia is a free, open content online encyclopedia created through the collaborative effort of a community of users known as Wikipedians.
  • Anyone registered on the site can create an article for publication; registration is not required to edit articles.
  • The site's name comes from the wiki, a server program that enables anyone to edit Web site content through their Web browser.

MASSIVE OPEN ONLINE COURSES (MOOCS)

A Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web.

MOOCs are courses designed for large numbers of participants that can be accessed by anyone anywhere as long as they have an internet connection, are open to everyone without entry qualifications, and offer a full/complete course experience online for free.


SOCIAL NETWORKING

Social networking is the use of internet-based social media programs to make connections with friends, family, classmates, customers, and clients.

Social networking can occur for social purposes, business purposes, or both through sites such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc.


EDUCATIONAL MULTIMEDIA

“Multimedia is the exciting combination of computer hardware and software that allows you to integrate video, animation, audio, graphics, and test resources to develop effective presentations on an affordable desktop computer.” (Fenrich, 1997)

Multimedia is a term frequently heard and discussed among educational technologists today. In essence, multimedia merges multiple levels of learning into an educational tool that allows for diversity in curricula presentation.

Further References:

Similar Posts

Post a Comment

Please Share your views and suggestions in the comment box

Previous Post Next Post