PEDAGOGY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE [Teaching of Social Science]

PEDAGOGY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE [Teaching of Social Science]


PEDAGOGY OF SOCIAL SCIENCE or teaching of social science and social studies subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

What is Social Science?

In general, any branch of study that deals with the social life of man and employs scientific methods for its study may be conceived as a social science. Thus, it includes a wide variety of branches of knowledge from History and Philosophy to Law and Education.

According to Charles Beard’s, “social sciences are a body of knowledge and thought pertaining to human affairs.”

NATURE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

  • It is a unique combination of various disciplines
  • It is a study of human relationships
  • It is a study of man’s development through ages
  • It aims at preparing the learner for wholesome social living
  • It is a realistic course of study
  • It forms an important part of the core –curriculum
  • It includes Commitment to action

SCOPE OF SOCIAL SCIENCE

  1. It is as vast and wide as the world
  2. It is a functional study of natural and physical sciences and fine arts.
  3. It is a study of current affairs.
  4. It is a study leading to international understanding.
  5. It is a practical study of various Resources.

Major aspects of Social Science

  • History
  • Civics
  • Geography
  • Geography
  • Sociology
  • Economics
  • Anthropology

Major Disciplines under the family of Social Science

  1. Pure Social Science
  2. Semi Social Science
  3. Sciences with Social Implications

SOCIAL SCIENCE CORRELATION WITH OTHER SUBJECTS

There is no school subject which is not related to Social Science in some form or another. Social science provides the natural setting for meaningfully learning the various school subjects such as languages, sciences, mathematics, fine arts, etc.


Relation of Social Science with History:

History has a close relationship with social science is often taught as part of social science at school. History provides a basis and perspective to the important topics in social science such as education, population, war, trade union movements, towns and cities, customs and social moves, etc.


Relation of Social Science with Geography:

Social science includes the study of the living conditions of the people of various countries, their mode of living, their occupations, their standard of living, etc. All these are very much influenced by the geographical conditions of those countries.


Relation of Social Science with Economics:

Social science draws from Economics some of the knowledge of the basic need of human being such as food, shelter, and clothing.


Relation of Social Science with Languages:

Conversely, topics in social sciences can be meaningfully presented and comprehended only with the help of appropriate language skills and by adopting literary forms of expression.


Relation of Social Science with General Science:

The study of general science will have to be planned in relation to societal issues. At the same time, the historical, cultural, economic, and sociological aspects of human life have to be related to the developments in the various sciences that have revolutionized all aspects of human life.


Relation of Social Science with Mathematics:

Mathematics has to be taught by correlating it with different aspects and activities of human life to enable children to become useful members of society.


Relation of Social Science with Biology:

Biological concepts woven into social science are of great help to the understanding of the overpopulation problem.


Relation of Social Science with Physics:

Physical science and social science are closely related to dealing with food, clothing shelter, weather, transport, and communication are used in science as well as in social science. Advances in science and technology have revolutionized social life all over the world.


Relation of Social Science with Fine Arts:

The study of social science and that of fine arts could be made meaningful and goal oriented only if the relation between the two subjects is made evident by adopting appropriate instructional strategies.


GENERAL AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING SOCIAL SCIENCE

  1. To acquaint the child with his past and present geographical and social environment.
  2. To enable children to appreciate India’s rich cultural heritage as also to recognize.
  3. To build social competence.
  4. To build intelligent democratic citizenship.
  5. To help the child acquire the right attitudes knowledge understanding and competence which he will need in the interaction with the social and physical environment.
  6. To help the child gain insight into spiritual economic and political values as forces in human behavior and human relationships.
  7. To develop desirable qualities for the all-round development of a rich personality.
  8. To foster an attitude towards knowledge, life, and learning relevant to the present.
  9. To promote understanding of all history and all human experience as a process of change and development.
  10. To give a sense of belonging
  11. To enable the pupils to use their leisure properly.
  12. To help resolve our contemporary social and individual problems
  13. To foster national feelings.
  14. To promote international understanding.

VALUES OF TEACHING SOCIAL SCIENCE

Social Science is valuable as a study in more ways than one.

  1. Disciplinary Values
  2. Information Values
  3. Educational Values
  4. Ethical Values
  5. Cultural Values
  6. Political Values
  7. Nationalistic Values
  8. Vocational Values

TEACHING SKILLS

Teaching skill is a set of related overt behaviors of the teacher (verbal and non-verbal) which are observable, definable, measurable, demonstratable, and refinable through practice.


IMPORTANT TEACHING SKILLS IN SOCIAL SCIENCE


Some of the skills are extensively used by all teachers in routine teaching. These skills are known as Core Teaching Skills.

Some Core Teaching Skills:

  1. Skill of Fluency in Questioning
  2. Skill of Explaining
  3. Skill of Stimulus Variation
  4. Skill of Reinforcement
  5. Skill of Using Blackboard

MICRO TEACHING

Microteaching is a new design for teacher training which provides trainees with feedback about their performance immediately after completion of a micro lesson.


Objectives of Microteaching

  • To enable the teacher trainees to learn and assimilate new teaching skills under controlled conditions.
  • To enable the teacher trainees to gain confidence in teaching and to master a number of skills by dealing with a small group of students

Characteristic of Micro teaching

  1. It is a scaled-down teaching
  2. It is less complex than regular teaching
  3. It involves a lesser number of students usually 5 to 10
  4. Its duration is short about 5 to 10 minutes

ESSENTIAL QUALITIES OF A SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHER

In the teaching of social science, the teacher occupies a pivotal role.

The qualities of a Social Science teacher may be categorized as

  • Scholarship
  • Professional Training
  • Personality
  • Teaching Skills
  • Human Relations

Scholarship:

  • Acquaintance with problems of present-day life and awareness about social issues
  • Constant reading of newspapers, magazines, and other materials
  • Wide reading of books on the subject taught
  • Sound knowledge of the subject taught

Professional Training:

  • Development of a positive professional attitude
  • Creating interest in reading educational magazines
  • Mastering professional skills

Personality:

It has three aspects
  1. Physical aspects
  2. Inner virtues
  3. Executive abilities

1. Physical Aspects:

  • Personal appearance including dress body, language, social expression, mannerism, and personal cleanliness
  • Etiquette including good manners observances of social norms, courtesy, and refinement
  • Voice rich and mellow
  • Good language command including excellence in pronunciation enunciation and correct grammar
  • Health and hygiene

2. Inner Virtues:

  • Enthusiasm
  • Fairness
  • Friendliness
  • Optimism
  • Patience
  • Self-control
  • Sincerity
  • Sympathy
  • Tactfulness
  • Understanding

3. Executive abilities:

  • Adaptability
  • Directive ability
  • Industry
  • Initiative
  • Organizing ability
  • Resourcefulness
  • Self-confidence
  • Self-reliance

Teaching Skills:

  • Control and modulation of facial expression
  • Greeting and taking up proper positions in the class.
  • Use of appropriate gestures in various
  • Quality as a social being
  • Social moderator and engineer
  • Deep knowledge of the subject

SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCE

  1. To create leadership development opportunities for students
  2. To foster a commitment to social and civic responsibility
  3. To promote learning both for students and for community members
  4. To play a role in creating capacity in the community to work on complex societal problems
  5. To design a more effective way for the campus to contribute to economic and community development.
  6. Prepares students to be intentional learners who can adapt to new environments, integrate knowledge from different sources and continue to learn throughout their lives
  7. Open up boundaries and stimulate the exchange of ideas using some of the strategies of learning organizations
  8. Celebrate the diversity of the school community.
  9. Create school democracies that have real power.

PROBLEMS FACED BY SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHERS

  • Dealing with controversial Topics
  • Making connections to students
  • Need to vary Instruction
  • Staying at the lower level of Blooms Taxonomy
  • Too much reliance on Textbooks
  • Lack of Interest
  • Lack of resources available

CURRICULUM

Curriculum is a tool in the hands of an artist (teacher) to mould his materials (pupils) according to his ideals (objectives) in his studio (School) – Arthur Cunningham

The curriculum includes all those activities and environmental influences to which the student is exposed during his educational career, which in turn results in deep-rooted experiences for him. These experiences then help for the realization of a variety of anticipated goals.


IMPORTANCE OF GOOD SOCIAL SCIENCE CURRICULUM

  1. Synthesis of the subjects of study and life
  2. Acquisition and strengthening of knowledge
  3. Complete development
  4. Development of democratic values
  5. Realization of values
  6. Harmony between individual and society
  7. Creation of a suitable environment

TYPES OF CURRICULA

  1. Traditional or subject-centered curriculum
  2. Activity centered curriculum
  3. Child-centered curriculum
  4. Experience centered curriculum
  5. Undifferentiated curriculum

PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION
  • The Principle of Child Centeredness
  • The Principles of Community Centeredness
  • The Principle of Activity Centeredness
  • The Principle of Integration
  • Forward-Looking Principle
  • Conservation Principle
  • Renewal Principle
  • Creative Principle
  • Motivation Principle
  • Maturity Principle
  • The Principle of Preparation for Life
  • The Principle of Elasticity and Flexibility
  • The Principle of Comprehensiveness
  • The Principle of Balance
  • The Principle of Utility

PLANNING

To develop the competence of choosing the relevant instructional process, the teacher is required to develop the skill of planning the instruction. How do we plan for teaching social studies?

Developing instructional objectives (cognitive/affective etc.) in precise terms is one of the most important aspects of instructional planning. It helps in selecting suitable teaching-learning alternatives and evaluation procedures too.

PLANNING THE DAILY LESSON

The lesson plan is the smallest unit plan which contains similar elements arranged in much the same way to achieve the objectives as in the extended unit plan.


LESSON PLANNING

A lesson plan represents a single teaching unit meant for a class period. Generally, a lesson plan is a teacher’s mental and emotional visualization of classroom activities.

In the words of Lester B. Stands, “A lesson plan is actually a plan of action.”

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD LESSON PLAN

  • Objective-based
  • The decision about appropriate material aids
  • Based on previous knowledge
  • Division of lesson plan in units
  • Simplicity of activities
  • Determination of activities
  • Homework
  • Self-evaluation
  • Use of illustration
  • Use of blackboard

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY- TAXONOMY OF INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES

Instructional objectives are often classified according to the kind or level of learning that is required in order to reach them.

There are numerous taxonomies of instructional objectives; the most common taxonomy was developed by Benjamin Bloom and his colleagues.

The first level of the taxonomy divides objectives into three categories:

  1. Cognitive
  2. Affective
  3. Psychomotor
  • Cognitive objectives focus on the mind
  • Affective objectives focus on emotions or affect
  • Psychomotor objectives focus on the body

MAJOR METHODS OF TEACHING SOCIAL SCIENCE

  • Storytelling method
  • Supervised Study
  • Text Book Method
  • Source Method
  • Lecture Method
  • Demonstration Method
  • Dramatization Method
  • Team Teaching Method
  • Problem-solving method
  • Project Method
  • Discussion Method

RESOURCES AND EQUIPMENT FOR SOCIAL SCIENCE TEACHING

  1. Social science library
  2. Social science laboratory
  3. Social science museum
  4. Study circles
  5. Community resources
  6. Social science club
  7. Celebration of national festivals
  8. Model parliament
  9. Organization of field trips and excursions
Further References:

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  1. Pedagogy of social science teaching (geography method er book )ta bengali version er pieya jaba.

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