PEDAGOGY OF ENGLISH [Teaching of English]

PEDAGOGY OF ENGLISH [Teaching of English]

“Language is the road map of a culture. It tells you where its people come from and where they are going” …Rita Mae Brown


PEDAGOGY OF ENGLISH or teaching of english subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

LANGUAGE

The word ‘Language’ is derived from the Latin word ‘Lingue’ which means ‘produced with the tongue’. Hence language means a thing which is produced with the tongue.

Block and Tragers: “Language is a set of arbitrary vocal symbols by means of which a social group communicates.”
Otto Jespersen: “Language is a set of human habits, the purpose of which is to give expression to human thoughts and feelings specially to impart them to others.”

CHARACTERISTICS OF LANGUAGE

  • Language is Learnt
  • Language is an acquired Behaviour
  • Language is a System
  • Language is Vocal
  • Language is Ever-changing
  • Language is for Communication
  • Language is Arbitrary
  • Language is Based on Cultural Experiences
  • Language is Made of Habits
  • Language is Unique

FUNCTIONS OF LANGUAGE

  • Instrumental Function
  • Regulatory Function
  • Interaction Function
  • Personal Function
  • Heuristic Function
  • Imaginative Function
  • Representational Function

PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING

  1. Habit Formation
  2. Practice and Drill
  3. Oral Approach
  4. Natural Order of Learning
  5. Multi-Skill Approach
  6. Selection and Gradation
  7. Situational Approach
  8. Exposure
  9. Imitation
  10. Motivation
  11. Accuracy
  12. Purpose
  13. Multiple Approaches
  14. Interest
  15. Co-relation

NATURE OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

  • Receptive
  • Heterogeneous
  • Systematic
  • Unique
  • Dynamic
  • Creative
  • Productive
  • Symbolic
  • Modifiable
  • Grammatical

THE IMPORTANCE OF ENGLISH IN INDIA

English has been playing an important role both in our educational system and in our national life. English was supreme during the pre-dependent India.

It was the language of administration, a compulsory subject in schools and colleges. English still occupies an important place in our educational system and the life of our country.


Importance of English Language in India

  1. It is the official language of administration
  2. It is the language of the court
  3. It is the language of international trade and industry
  4. It is the window on the modern world

Some Reasons for Learning English

  • English offers the freedom to explore
  • English fosters creativity
  • English enables learning
  • English develops thinking
  • English promotes participation

AIMS OF TEACHING ENGLISH

  1. To enable the students to understand English when spoken.
  2. To enable them to speak English.
  3. To enable them to read English.
  4. To enable them to write English.

TEACHING OF PROSE

The word prose has been derived from the Latin word, ‘Prosa’ or ‘Proversa Oration’ which means ‘straight forward discourse’.

The prose is the powerful medium of expressing ideas, facts, laws, and principles. Therefore, it appeals to the head or mind.

The main aim of teaching prose is to enlarge vocabulary, explain the structure of the sentences, and grasp the ideas of the author.


General Aims of Teaching Prose

  • To enable the students to read aloud the prose lesson with correct pronunciation, stress, intonation, and pause.
  • To enable the students to comprehend the thought and ideas contained in the passage.
  • To enrich their active and passive vocabulary.
  • To enable the students to express the ideas contained in the passage orally and in writing.
  • To develop their interest in reading.
  • To enable them to write correctly.
  • To build their character and prepare for world citizenship.

The procedure of Teaching Prose Lesson

The procedure of teaching prose lessons involves the following steps:

  1. Preparation
  2. Presentation
  3. Recapitulation
  4. Home Assignment

TEACHING OF VOCABULARY

Vocabulary is the set of lexical items in a language, it is also called the ‘lexicon’.

The term lexicon is known in English from the early 17 century when it referred to a book containing a selection of a language’s words and meanings, arranged in alphabetical order.

The term itself comes from the Greek ‘lexis’ word. It has taken on a more abstract sense, especially within linguistics, referring to the total stock of meaningful units in a language, not only the words and idioms but also the parts of words that express meaning, such as the prefixes and suffixes.


Types of Vocabulary

  1. Active Vocabulary
  2. Passive Vocabulary

Techniques of Teaching Vocabulary

  1. Showing pictures or using Audio-visual aids.
  2. Showing real objects or models
  3. Miming or performing an action
  4. By framing illustrative sentences
  5. By associating with other words
  6. Identifying the lexical set
  7. Breaking words into component units
  8. Exposure to different contexts
  9. Selecting the bases and their order of presentation
  10. To give some importance to word formation
  11. Crossword puzzles
  12. Word games
  13. Giving equivalents in the mother tongue
  14. Encourage the students to use a dictionary

TEACHING OF POETRY

Coleridge defined poetry as “The best words in their best order”.

Poetry embodies the beauty of form, the beauty of thoughts, and the beauty of feelings.

Allen Poe calls poetry as “The rhythmical creation of thoughts”.

Poetry has tremendous appeal for children and it is the way of exciting their love of language. It lays the foundation for the appreciation of the language. It educates their emotions and enhances their power of imagination.


Aims of Teaching Poetry

General Aims

  • To enable the students to recite the poem with proper rhythm and intonation.
  • To enable the students to enjoy the recitation of the poem.
  • To realize them about the emotions of the poet.
  • To develop a love for poetry reading and writing.
  • To enable the students to appreciate the poem.
  • To enable them to understand the thoughts and images contained in the poem.
  • To appreciate the rhyme & rhythm and style of the poem.
  • To realize the emotions, feelings, and imagination of the poet.
  • To develop their aesthetic sense.
  • To create a love for English poetry.

Specific Aims

  • To enable the students to recite the poem with proper rhyme with rhythm.
  • To enable the students to enjoy the recitation of the poem.
  • To understand the central idea of the poem.
  • To communicate the exclusive message of the poem to the students.
  • To enable them to appreciate the beauty and images depicted in the poem.

The procedure of Teaching of Poetry

  1. Preparation
  2. Presentation
  3. Comprehension/Appreciation
  4. Home Assignment

TEACHING OF GRAMMAR

Grammar is the study of the organization of words into a sentence that is based on certain rules.

According to Prof. Nelson Francis, “Grammar is set of formal patterns in which the words of a language are arranged in order to convey meanings. It gives the students ability to speak and write correctly and enables them to use formal language patterns properly for describing a thing”.

Aims of Teaching Grammar

  1. To develop a student’s insight into the structure of the English language.
  2. To enable the students for understanding the rules of English grammar through use and practice.
  3. To enable the students to assimilate the correct patterns of the language without rote memorization.
  4. To enable the students to speak and write correctly.
  5. To develop a scientific attitude towards the language.

TEACHING OF COMPOSITION

The composition is the expression of thoughts, feelings, ideas, observations, and experiences in written form.

It refers to the collecting of thoughts or information and arranging them in a sequence and expressing them in accordance with recognized standard form.

An essay, a story, a letter, a poem, and a description are some of the forms of composition.


Aims of Teaching Composition

  • To encourage the students to express their ideas in an organized and systematic way.
  • To enable them to develop their skill of writing.
  • To enable them to use appropriate vocabulary in writing various forms of composition.
  • To enable them for the logical presentation of thoughts and ideas.
  • To develop their communicative competence.

Types of Composition

  1. Oral Composition
  2. Written Composition

LANGUAGE SKILLS

There are four types of Language skills viz.

  1. Listening
  2. Speaking
  3. Reading
  4. Writing

LISTENING SKILL

Jane Willis writes, “Listening is receptive rather than productive, but it is an equally important skill.

Listening involves the formation of proper auditory images of phonemic components such as the use of vowel and consonant sounds, stress, accent, pitch, pause, juncture, intonation, and the rhythm of language.


GOALS OF TEACHING LISTENING

  • To produce students who can use listening strategies to maximize their Comprehension of aural inputs.
  • To produce students who can identify relevant and non-relevant information.
  • To produce students who can tolerate less than word by word comprehensions.

STAGES OF LISTENING

  1. Receiving
  2. Understanding
  3. Responding

SPEAKING SKILL

Speaking is a productive skill. It is only through speaking that we get many things done for us. Speaking means communicating.

In real-life situations, we can’t live without speaking.

Listening and speaking go hand in hand and reading and writing go together. For instance, when a teacher is teaching something in the class, the class is listening.

Speaking involves the articulation of all the components referred to above and the development of communicative competence at the product level.


STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES FOR DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILL

  1. Asking questions to the learners on the topics of their interest.
  2. Asking the learners to say the model dialogue.
  3. Asking the class to converse with each other.
  4. Making use of ‘Information – gap activities.
  5. Using role-play, simulation, dramatization, communication games, guessing games, etc.
  6. Using ‘substitution table’, discrimination exercises, substitution drills, conversation drills, pictures – cues, indirect questions, correction techniques, etc.
  7. Using pair work and group work techniques.

READING SKILL

Reading is an essential part of language teaching at every level. Learning to read is a language skill but this is very difficult to learn.

According to the traditional approach, the purpose of reading is to understand the meaning of words, grammar, and sentence.

By reading, we give thought and sound value to the printed or the written page. The abilities involved in reading are:

  • Comprehension
  • Recognition of the symbols

Purposes of Reading

  • To gain information to verify existing knowledge.
  • To critique a writer’s idea or writing style for enjoyment.
  • To enhance knowledge for the language being read.

TYPES OF READING

  1. Reading Aloud
  2. Silent Reading

METHODS OF TEACHING READING

  • The Alphabetic Method
  • The phonic Method
  • The word Method or the Look and the Say Method
  • The Phrase Method
  • The Sentence Method

WRITING SKILL

Writing is one of the important skills to be developed in a language. Students learn to write words and sentences after knowing how to read them.

Writing skill is an effective tool for communication. It helps students develop imaginative and critical thinking abilities.


MECHANICS OF WRITING

  1. Knowing how to make strokes with proper hand movement.
  2. Knowing how to make letters of the right shape and size.
  3. Knowing how to have the right spacing between letters, words, and lines.
  4. Knowing how to use capital letters and marks of punctuation correctly.
  5. Knowing how to have a fluent hand movement from left to right.
  6. Writing is more permanent than speaking and requires more careful organization.

IMPORTANCE OF WRITING

  • Writing is communicating with words. Students, while writing translate their thinking into words and sentences as ideas.
  • Writing is the primary basis on which students’ learning
  • Writing expresses who a student is as a person.
  • Writing helps a student express ideas and it helps refine his ideas when others give feedback.
  • Writing helps students understand how truth is established in a given discipline/ subject.
  • Writing is a very important component of our life.

GOOD WRITING INVOLVES FOUR IMPORTANT SKILLS

  • Mechanical skills
  • Grammatical skills
  • Judgment skills
  • Discourse skills

CHARACTERISTICS OF GOOD HANDWRITING

  1. Distinctiveness
  2. Letters of moderate Size
  3. Proper spacing
  4. Writing in a straight line
  5. Simplicity
  6. Speed
  7. Attractiveness

SUGGESTIONS TO IMPROVE THE HANDWRITING OF THE STUDENTS

  1. Great attention needs to be paid to handwriting right from the beginning.
  2. Correct habits of writing should be cultivated in the students at an early stage.
  3. Students should sit in the proper posture.
  4. Students should use calligraphy notebooks.
  5. For written work during the first three years of English, students should use four-lined exercise books
  6. The teacher should point out to the students the direction of movement in the formation of various letters.
  7. While the students are writing, the teacher should go round the class to ensure that the students are making the correct movements.

COMMON PROBLEMS IN WRITING

  • Spelling Mistakes
  • Incorrect word orders
  • Forming paragraphs
  • Organizing ideas
  • Lack of ideas and opinions

METHODS OF TEACHING ENGLISH

1. Grammar –Translation Method

  • Grammar should be taught deductively.
  • The vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading texts used and words taught.
  • There should be much emphasis on accuracy.
  • Students are expected to attain high standards in translation.
  • The student’s native language is the medium of instruction.
  • It is used to explain new items and to enable comprehension.
  • In this method development of reading and writing skills should be the major focus.

2. Bilingual Method

The bilingual method is a method of language teaching developed by C.J Dodson (1967 / 1972) to improve the audio-visual method which was advocated in the 1960s.

In the bilingual method, a lesson includes three stages of teaching:

  1. Starting with the reproduction/performance of a basic dialogue.
  2. Moving on to the variation and recombination of the basic sentences.
  3. Application of the previous dialogues/sentences in new communicative work.

Well- ordered activities in the bilingual method take the students up to a conversational level in the shortest possible time.


3. Direct method

  • Since the grammar –Translation method was not very effective in preparing students to use the target language communicatively, the direct method gained popularity.
  • The direct method has one very basic rule: no translation is allowed.
  • In fact, the direct method receives its name from the fact that meaning is to be connected directly with the target language without going through the process of translating into the students’ native language.
  • The method aims at intense oral interaction in the classroom, so as to develop the oral communication skills of the student.

4. Audio Lingual Method

  • The term ‘audio-lingual’ was coined by professor Nelson Brooks in 1964.
  • The army programs were to make the students attain conversational proficiency in a variety of foreign languages.
  • At that time there were exciting new ideas about language and learning emanating from the disciplines of descriptive linguistics and behavioral psychology.
  • These ideas led to the development of the Audio-Lingual Method.
  • New vocabulary and grammatical structures are presented through dialogues.
  • Drills are conducted based upon the patterns present in the dialogues.

5. Dr. West’s New Method

  • Dr. Michael West has laid a great deal of importance to Reading.
  • He has said that for Indian students Silent reading is important, no doubt, but Loud Reading is equally important.
  • In this method, a good deal of importance has been attached to the art of speaking and reading together as they are interrelated.
  • But so far as teaching is concerned, both these things should be taught separately.
  • He holds that it shall be easy for the teacher to give the students the practice of these two things separately.

Some More Methods in Teaching English

  • Silent way method
  • Total physical response
  • Dogme language teaching
  • Pimsleur language learning method
  • Michel Thomas method

APPROACHES

Structural Approach

  • The structural approach in teaching English means approaching English on the basis of structures. For this purpose, the structures are well made to teach English. That is called a structural approach.
  • In this Approach, the structures are taught by creating situations. That makes the teaching, learning more effective.
  • In this approach, students are able to understand the subject matter fully because teaching is conducted by creating meaningful situations.

Situational Approach

  • In this approach, English is basically taught in the same way in which the child learns his own mother tongue.
  • Whatever the students understand and express is connected with his own life.
  • The situations in which the students learn are repeated again and again.
  • In this approach, English should also be taught by forming a link between new words and real situations.
  • The situational approach indicates how a teacher can create a real situation in the classroom.
  • The situational approach makes great demand upon the teacher.

Communicative Approach

  • The communicative approach is based on the idea that learning a language successfully comes through having to communicate real meaning.
  • When learners are involved in real communication, their natural strategies for language acquisition will be used, and this will allow them to learn to use the language.

RESOURCES IN TEACHING ENGLISH

  1. Flashcards
  2. Pictures
  3. Charts
  4. Models
  5. Blackboard
  6. Mechanical Aids Overhead Projector
  7. Tape recorder
  8. Radio
  9. Television
  10. Language Lab
  11. Powerpoint presentation
  12. Websites
  13. Multimedia
  14. Internet
  15. Newspaper articles
  16. Mobiles
  17. Films
  18. English clubs

TESTING AND EVALUATION IN ENGLISH

Teachers need to test the performance of their students. A language teacher must be aware of different testing techniques because they give useful information to both the teacher and the students.

Purpose of Test:

  • To test linguistic skills
  • Tests are used to find out what students can ‘do’. For example: Listening, Reading, Speaking, Writing
  • To test linguistic components
  • Tests are used to find out what students have 'learned'. For example Grammar, Vocabulary, Spelling, Pronunciation

DIFFERENT KINDS OF TEST

Achievement Test: Achievement tests determine how much of particular content or subject-matter has been mastered. These are commonly used at the end of school terms.

Aptitude Test: Aptitude tests try to predict how well a student will succeed in learning the second language. These tests focus on specific kinds of activity, for example, sound imitation, pattern matching. They provide data about individual difficulties.

Proficiency Test: Proficiency tests assess how well or how skillfully the students perform the four language skills – listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Usually, a student’s proficiency in listening and speaking are assessed by oral tests.

Diagnostic Test: Diagnostic tests aim to find out what a student still has to learn in a language. The results of this test provide feedback for a teacher by displaying the learner’s strengths and weaknesses.

Types of tests in English

  • Objective-Type Tests
  • Short-Answer Type Tests
  • Essay-Type Tests

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY

Taxonomy’ is a term derived from two Greek words ‘taxis’ meaning ‘arrangement’ and ‘nomos’ meaning ‘law’. In this derivative sense, taxonomy means ‘orderly arrangement’.

The most widely used system of classification of objectives is the one prepared by a group of college and university teachers and later reported in “Taxonomy of Educational Objectives” (1956) edited by Benjamin S. Bloom.

They classified the educational objectives into 3 broad categories or domains.

  1. Cognitive Domain (knowing)
  2. Affective Domain (feeling)
  3. Psycho-Motor Domain (doing)

LESSON PLAN

The lesson plan is a teacher’s mental and emotional visualization of classroom activities.

Carter V. Good defines a lesson plan as, “a teaching outline of the important points of a lesson arranged in order in which they are to be presented. It may include objectives, points to be asked, references to materials, assignments etc.”

MICRO TEACHING

Microteaching is a scaled-down sample of teaching in which a teacher teaches a small unit to a small group of 5 to 10 pupils for a small period of 5 to 10 minutes. Such a situation offers a helpful setting for a teacher to acquire new teaching skills and to refine old ones.

Passi, B.K. and Lalitha, M.S. (1936): Micro teaching is a training technique, which requires student teachers to teach a single concept using specified teaching skill to a small number of pupils in a short duration of time.

Further References:

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