PEDAGOGY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE [Teaching of Computer Science]

PEDAGOGY OF COMPUTER SCIENCE [Teaching of Computer Science]

“NanoTechnology is knocking at our doors. We should be aware of the trends of technology and nurture our young minds. - Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam



Computer science is an integral part of our lives, shaping virtually everything from the objects around us to the ways in which we communicate, travel, work, and play.


PURPOSE OF TEACHING COMPUTER SCIENCE

The purpose of computer science teaching in school is

  • To enable the student to grasp the basic knowledge needed from further study of computer science and the related technology and
  • To understand its application.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING COMPUTER SCIENCE

The teaching of computer science should aim to

  1. Provide fundamental knowledge to the students.
  2. Develop in them the skill of thinking and analyzing.
  3. Inculcate proficiency in reasoning and synthesizing.
  4. Create interest and scientific attitudes.
  5. Develop communicative skills and soft skills.
  6. Help the students apply their knowledge in learning activities.
  7. Help the students attain the thinking process.
  8. Make the students associate the knowledge in real-time application.
  9. Make the student attain the skills of initiatives.
  10. Build team spirit.
  11. Help the students attain the skill of problem-solving.
  12. Provide them vocational skills.
  13. Inculcate citizenship and love for the society and Nation.
  14. Promote local and global understanding.

NEED FOR TEACHING COMPUTER SCIENCE

The use of computers is inevitable and it has become a necessary electronic gadget in every individual’s life. By introducing computer science in the school curriculum, we can confidently challenge that the educational industries be fixed on to the global standards.


BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

Objectives are the specific and precise behavioral outcome of teaching a topic. The main objectives of teaching computer science must ensure a better match between the industry’s requirements and outputs of the education sector emphasizing the quality needs.

Knowledge acquisition, adaptation, and utility are the prime slogans of the present learning society. Hence learning computers from the school is the need of the hour.

Whole human processes can be divided into three levels as follows:

  1. Cognitive Domain (Activities related to head)
  2. Affective Domain (Activities related to the heart)
  3. Psycho-Motor Domain (Activities related to hand)

On the basis of these three Domains, B.S. Bloom and his associates divided educational objectives and there were six objectives for each domain.


COMPUTER SCIENCE TEACHING AT DIFFERENT LEVELS IN SCHOOLS

PRIMARY LEVEL

  • At primary levels, the computer is being used to display the lessons in the form of Rhymes, Games, and Browsing, and Interactive mode.
  • Simple software applications like MS Paint are taught

SECONDARY LEVEL

  • At the Secondary level, computer skills are developed.
  • The application software like MS Word, Excel, and PowerPoint are taught.

HIGHER SECONDARY LEVEL

  • At a higher secondary level, computer science teaching is at a high level.
  • The programming skill-based curriculum is introduced at this level.
  • The languages like C, C++, and Visual Basic and the web language like HTML are in the higher secondary curriculum.

THE PLACE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE IN SCHOOL CURRICULUM

The 5 reasons for computer science courses to be taught at present are

  1. To use electronic gadgets in all fields.
  2. To be on part with ever-increasing societal needs and expectations.
  3. To become equipped for new business and industries’ dimensions.
  4. To be competent for local and global competitions.
  5. Working with finance.

COMPUTER SCIENCE TEACHING IN RELATION TO OTHER SCHOOL SUBJECTS

Computer Science and Chemistry

  • Nuclear magnetic resonance, mass, infra-red, and ultraviolet spectrometry all depend on computers to control the sensitive equipment and obtain and record detailed measurements.
  • It is obvious that computers are important in taking measurements but they can also be used to predict measurements.
  • There is some very powerful software available for predicting the physical properties of compounds.
  • Bond lengths, melting points, vibrational frequencies, and properties such as solubility can be predicted using dedicated software based on theories known.
  • Software like this can help you to 'design' a molecule to the specific needs of the chemist.
  • Without the software, it would take hours of calculations to predict the properties.

Computer Science and Physics

  • Computers have great influence in the field of physics.
  • Starting from Atom energy to Astronomy, the computer has a deep influence.
  • Finding weather reports, Moments of particles, and their functions can be monitors through computers.
  • Research in the field of Physics is enhanced and sophisticated by computer and its applications.
  • Computers are used in Mechanical Engineering through CAD, CAM, ANSYS, and CATIA as designing and analyzing soft wares

Computer Science and Biology

  • The use of computer technology has greatly enhanced the medical field.
  • This is particularly so in hospital environments where reliability and quality are critical factors.
  • Many computer applications, such as patient information systems, monitoring, and control systems, and diagnostic systems, have been used to enhance healthcare.

Computer Science and Social Science

  • The computer is used to review the past with documentary evidence.
  • The books and all other old documents are being digitalized using computers.
  • Moreover, it helps to develop new dimensions of maps and it is useful in finding natural resources using Satellites, Receivers, and Sensors.
  • The computer has great influence in developing Global Positioning System (GPS)

Computer Science and Languages

  • Computer science is used to develop software in languages.
  • Computers spread languages throughout the world.

WHAT IS COMPUTER?

A computer is a device, which can compute. It is an electronic device, which works under a set of instructions automatically accepts the supplied data, process,es and analyzes the data, and produces the information.

The first fully electronic computers, introduced in the 1940s, were huge machines that required teams of people to operate. But nowadays we have the most advanced machines which perform a number of calculations within a fraction of time.


How Does Computer Works?

Computers work through an interaction of Hardware and Software.


Hardware:

  • Hardware refers to the parts of a computer that we can see and touch, including the case and everything inside it.
  • The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular chip inside the computer called the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor.
  • It’s the "brain" of your computer—the part that translates instructions and performs calculations.
  • Hardware items such as your monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other components are often called hardware devices, or devices.

Software:

  • Software refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do.
  • A word processing program that we can use to write letters on your computer is a type of software.
  • The operating system (OS) is software that manages our computer and the devices connected to it.
  • Two well-known operating systems are Windows and Macintosh operating systems.

HISTORY OF COMPUTERS

The history of computer development is often in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each of the five generations of computers is characterized by a major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate.


First Generation Computers

  • The first electronic computer came into use at the end of the II World War.
  • It contained approximately 18500 vacuum tubes, 70000 resistors, and 10000 capacitors and weighed about 30 tones.
  • It also consumed a large amount of electrical power, considerable space, and a large amount of money.

Second Generation Computers

  1. In this generation, the large bulky vacuum tubes were replaced with the much smaller transistors.
  2. The transistors were not only smaller in size but also more reliable and consumed less energy, besides reducing the size of the computers considerably.
  3. Also, second-generation computers used high-level programming languages.

Third Generation Computers

  • The third generation of computers began in 1960, after the Invention of an integrated circuit or chip.
  • This chip was a one-quarter inch-square piece of material on which thousands of electronic circuits (replacements for vacuum tubes, transistors, resistors, and capacitors) could be implanted.
  • This is considered to be the backbone of today's modern electronic computers.

Fourth Generation Computers

  • This generation of computers was characterized by the development of a microprocessor or a microchip in 1970.
  • Approximately 70,000 or more vacuum tube equivalents or transistors could be embedded in a single chip of this kind.
  • They were very powerful in terms of the speed of processing and memory.
  • They were otherwise known as "computers on a chip".

Fifth Generation Computers

  • The fifth-generation computer of the 1990s was much faster and more powerful.
  • Therefore, this generation of computer is characterized by "Artificial Intelligence".

Because of the rapid growth of technological advancements in computers, no one can predict what the future will bring. It is certain that computers will continue to evolve and will bring about significant changes in our lives in the future.


TYPES OF COMPUTERS

  • Analog
  • Digital
  • Hybrid Computers
  • Supercomputer
  • Mainframe Computer
  • Minicomputer
  • Workstation
  • Personal computer
  • Notebook computer
  • Laptop computer

COMPUTER NETWORK

A computer network is an interconnection of various computer systems located in different places. In a computer network, two or more computers are linked together with medium and data communication devices for the purpose of communicating data and sharing resources.


BENEFITS OF NETWORK

  1. File sharing
  2. Printer/peripheral sharing
  3. Internet connection sharing
  4. Multi-player games
  5. Internet telephone service
  6. Home entertainment

TYPES OF NETWORKS

There are many different types of networks. However, from an end user’s point of view there are three basic types:

  1. Local Area Network
  2. Wide Area Network
  3. Metropolitan Area Network

COMPUTER VIRUS

  • A computer virus is a program that is able to copy itself when it is run.
  • In addition to copying itself, a computer virus can also execute instructions that cause harm. For this reason, computer viruses affect security.
  • Computer viruses are created for a cause, sometimes they are created to spread political messages and they are also created to hack some system files.
  • Computer viruses are spread in many ways. Some of the types of spreading are email, removable hardware, downloading, and so on.

THE VARIOUS USES OF COMPUTERS

A computer is used in all human life. The most important areas have been given as follows.

  1. Routine Job Handling
  2. Traffic Control
  3. Electronic Money
  4. Industrial Application
  5. Trade
  6. Scientific Research
  7. Medicine
  8. Space science
  9. Publication
  10. Communications
  11. Education

USES OF COMPUTERS IN SCHOOLS

  • Administrative uses: Many educational institutions computerize nearly all their operations from mailing labels to staff payroll.
  • Office Applications: In the offices, computers are used in the filing, typing/word processing, preparing to mail for dispatch, and making labels of addresses.
  • Library Applications: In the library, computers are used for retrieval of bibliographic information, cataloging, circulation, purchasing of books, journals, etc., searching books, and charging fines from students. Also, databases can be prepared for the different users of the library.
  • Financial Applications: Computers are used for making budgets, auditing, accounts receivable/payable, general ledger, purchase order generation, salary schedule analysis, and maintenance of student’s fees records, etc.
  • Student Applications: Computers are used to make a time table for students, report cards, grade information, maintenance of attendance, students’ health and demographic records, result processing, fee statements, railway concessions cards, bio-data of students, etc.
  • Personnel Applications: Computers are used to prepare payrolls of workers, maintenance personnel records staff assignments, leave records of teachers, health records, tax information, and reporting, issuing circular to teaching and non-teaching staff, maintaining biodata of teachers and non-teaching staff.
  • Research and Planning Applications: Computers are used in various research and planning applications such as test item analysis, project planning and evaluation, budget forecasting, the feasibility of opening new courses, etc.

MICRO TEACHING

Micro-teaching is one of the most important developments in the field of teaching practice. It is originated at Stanford University in 1963.

Basically, micro-teaching is a ‘Scaled-down teaching encounter’ in which a teacher teaches a small unit to a group of 5 to 10 students for a small period of 5 to 10 minutes and one teaching skill is practiced during the teaching.

Micro-teaching is a new training design for pupils–teachers which provide an opportunity to practice one teaching skill at a time and with information about their performance immediately after completion of their lesson.

Allen (1966) defines micro-teaching as a ‘scaled down teaching encounter in class size and classtime’.
According to the Encyclopedia of Education (Ed. DeigHton), “Micro- Teaching is a real, constructed, scaled down teaching encounter which is used for teacher training, curriculum development and research.”

Microteaching is a teacher training technique for learning teaching skills. It employs a real teaching situation for developing skills and helps to get deeper knowledge regarding the art of teaching.


Principles of Micro-Teaching

  1. Principle of One Skill at a Time
  2. Principle of Limited Contents
  3. Principle of Practice
  4. Principle of Experimentation
  5. Principle of Immediate Feedback
  6. Principle of Evaluation
  7. Principle of Continuity
  8. Principle of Individualized Training

PHASES OF MICRO-TEACHING

  1. Knowledge Acquisition Phase
  2. Skill Acquisition Phase
  3. Transfer Phase of Micro-teaching

TEACHING SKILLS

Teaching is considered science as well as art. An effective teacher employs certain teaching skills to general calculative learning situations in his classroom.

‘A teaching skill is defined as set of teachers behavior and activities which are especially effective in bringing about desirable behavioral changes or skills among teachers and pupil teachers.

Allen and Ryans (1969), have prepared and suggested a list of the following fourteen teaching skills.

  1. Stimulus Variation
  2. Set induction
  3. Closure
  4. Silence and non-verbal cues
  5. Reinforcement of student
  6. Asking question participation
  7. Probing questions
  8. Divergent question
  9. Attending behavior
  10. Illustrating
  11. Lecturing
  12. Higher-order questions
  13. Planned repetition
  14. Communication completeness

UNIT PLAN

A unit plan is basically a list or series of lesson plans designed around a specific topic, project, content, etc, and among other reasons that apply for planning in general, it is important for teachers to design one because a great deal of learning is directly correlated to teachers’ planning and preparation.


Components in a Unit Plan

  • Unit Title & Subject Area
  • Communicative competence components
  • Classroom/ Level
  • Unit Rationale
  • Goals
  • Objectives
  • Content
  • Learning activities
  • List of Sources
  • List of Materials
  • Assessment
  • Explanation of how the unit plan addresses a particular student profile

LESSON PLAN WRITING IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

In education, it is necessary to plan a lesson scientifically. In the teaching of Computer Science, writing a lesson plan is very important.

A lesson plan is an instructional outline prepared by the teacher in order to impart systematic and planned information to the students in the class


Herbartian Lesson Plan

It is an ancient method of lesson-plan. This method is used from past times but today its use is also not less. In most training institutions Herbartian lesson-plan is used.

Herbartian five-step For Making a Lesson Plan are:

  1. Preparation
  2. Presentation
  3. Comparison and Abstraction
  4. Generalization
  5. Application

METHODS OF TEACHING COMPUTER SCIENCE

The various methods of teaching Computer Science are as follows:

  • Lecture
  • Demonstration
  • Lecture-demonstration
  • Problem-solving
  • Project method
  • Scientific method
  • Analytic method
  • Synthetic method

LECTURE METHOD

Lecture means teaching a lesson in the form of speech or talk. The teacher delivers a lecture on a particular topic and the students keep listening in an idle manner.


DEMONSTRATION METHOD

In this method, the spoken word is supplemented with a demonstration using varied aids resulting in auditory and visual learning


LECTURE -DEMONSTRATION METHOD

  • This method of teaching is sometimes also referred to as lecture-cum- Demonstration method.
  • This lecture-demonstration method is used by Computer science teachers for imparting Computer Science education in the classroom.

PROJECT METHOD

  • This method is based on the principle of learning by doing and learning by living.
  • In this method, the school curriculum and contents of studies are considered from the pupil’s point of view
  • It also illustrates the problem-solving method
  • It is a pupil-centered method
  • The students work out problems selected by themselves, investigate them and solve them in groups or individually
  • The teacher act as a guide and instructor
“A project is a problematic act carried to completion in its natural setting” – Stevenson
“It is a unit of activity in which pupils are made responsible for planning and - purposing” -Parker

ANALYTIC METHOD

  • Analysis means breaking up of subject matter
  • It starts from unknown to known facts
  • This method helps to break the complex problem into simpler ones
  • The students by this method develop the ability to attack upon the problem and analyze it into a simpler form
  • The spirit of investigation and critical reasoning is developed by this method
  • It increases individual thinking
  • New facts are discovered by the objective approach of students

SYNTHETIC METHOD

  • It binds different known facts into unknown facts.
  • It leads from known to unknown facts.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD OR PROBLEM-SOLVING METHOD

  • Any method of solving a problem systematically and scientifically may be called scientific.
  • Scientific method refers to a technique for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.
  • A scientific method consists of the collection of data through observation and experimentation, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses.

THE INDUCTIVE APPROACH

  • This method requires the study and careful examination of particular facts to deduce a general principle.
  • Pupils are actively engaged in thinking for themselves and discovered new rules, generalization, etc.
  • The students draw generalization from particular principles, from observed rules, and from instances.

Steps involved in the Inductive Method are:

  1. Sensing the problem
  2. Analyzing the situation
  3. Organizing information
  4. Framing solution
  5. Eliminating
  6. Verification

THE DEDUCTIVE APPROACH

It suggests the verification of general principles, rules, definitions already learned.

It should be noted that this method has two functions to perform:

  1. Drawing inferences from general principles studied
  2. Explaining particular facts with the help of general principles, laws, etc.

Steps of the Deductive Method:

  1. Understanding the problem
  2. Collecting information
  3. Reviewing
  4. Drawing inferences
  5. Verification

PROGRAMMED LEARNING

  • Programmed learning is an educational innovation and auto instructional device.
  • It has been coined from principles of operant learning by B.F.Skinner.
  • It is also named programmed instruction and instructional technology.

Principles of Programmed Learning

  • Principle of small steps
  • Principle of active responding
  • Principle of immediate confirmation
  • Principle of self-pacing
  • Principle of evaluation

COMPUTER ASSISTED INSTRUCTION

Computer-assisted instruction is a method of using computer technology in teaching and learning.

Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place.


COMPUTER-MANAGED INSTRUCTION

Computer-managed instruction is an instructional strategy whereby the computer is used to provide learning objectives, learning resources, and assessment of learner performance.

It refers to the use of a computer system to manage information about learner performance and learning resources options.


INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS IN THE TEACHING OF COMPUTER SCIENCE

Audio-Visual Aids

Audiovisual aids are sensitive tools used in teaching and as avenues for learning.

These are planned educational materials that appeal to the senses of the people and quicken learning facilities for clear understanding.

According to Kinder S. James: Audio visual aids are any device which can be used to make the learning experience more concrete, more realistic and more dynamic.
According to KP. Neeraja: an audio visual aid is an instructional device in which the message can be heard as well as seen.

CHARACTERISTICS OF INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS OR AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

J.K. Davies has suggested the following five characteristics of Audio-Visual Aids:

  • Audio-Visual Aids help in developing perception.
  • It helps in developing understanding.
  • It enables the pupils to acquire correct knowledge.
  • Audio-Visual Aids help in the transfer of training.
  • These are helpful in acquiring knowledge and providing reinforcement.
  • Audio-Visual Aids help in developing retention.

INSTRUCTIONAL AIDS USED IN TEACHING

The Instructional aids used in teaching can be classified in the following ways:

  • Traditional Aids: Blackboard/Chalkboard, Books, Periodicals.
  • Visual Aids: Objects, Picture, Map, Figure, Chart, Posters, Model, Bulletin Board, Flannel Board, Globe, Graph, or Any Other Type of Graphics Such As| Diagrams, Cut-Outs, Cartoons, Etc.
  • Audio: Radio, Tape Recorder, Teaching Machine.
  • Visual: Projector, Epidiascope, Film Strips, Motion Picture, Etc.
  • Audio-Visual: Films, Television, Video, Cassettes, Etc.
  • Visual Material Aids: Use of Charts

INTERACTIVE WHITEBOARD

  • An Interactive White Board is a touch-sensitive screen that works in conjunction with a computer and a projector.
  • It is a presentation device that interfaces with a computer.
  • The computer images are displayed on the board by a digital projector, where they can be seen and manipulated.

POWERPOINT PRESENTATION

  • PowerPoint can be an effective tool to present material in the classroom and encourage student learning.
  • PowerPoint can be used to project visuals which would otherwise be difficult to bring to class.

LATEST TRENDS IN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

MULTIMEDIA

The term multimedia by definition means ‘more than one media’.

According to Hofstetter (2001), multimedia is the use of computer to present and combine text, graphics, audio and video with links and tools that let the user navigate, interact, create and communicate.

DESKTOP PUBLISHING

Desktop publishing is the process of preparing documents for printing via special page layout software known as desktop publishing software.

INTERNET

  • The Internet has revolutionized communication methods in the world.
  • Sitting at a workstation or a PC, one can get any kind of information one wants.
  • The latest technological advances have enabled it to be used as a business tool as well, with the result that companies are today spending a considerable amount of money on internet research.

The Internet is a system that lets computers all over the world to communicate with each other. The internet is a network of networks that connects computers all over the world.


E-LEARNING

  • E-learning can encompass a wide variety of online initiatives.
  • E-learning is the use of electronic media (computers, tablets, or phones) to educate or train learners.

VIRTUAL LEARNING

A virtual learning environment is a set of teaching and learning tools designed to enhance a student’s learning experience by including computers and the Internet in the learning process.


WEB-BASED LEARNING

Web-based learning encompasses all educational interventions that make use of the internet (or a local intranet).

There are currently three broad classifications or configurations within WBL: tutorials, online discussion groups, and virtual patients.


TELECONFERENCING

  • The term teleconferencing refers to electronic meetings that involve people who are at physically different sites.
  • The telecommunication technology system allows meeting participants to interact with one another without traveling to the same location.

AUDIO CONFERENCING

Audio conferencing is the use of voice communication equipment’s to establish an audio link between geographically dispersed persons, one that allows them to conduct a conference.


VIDEO CONFERENCING

  • Video conferencing is the use of television equipment to link geographically dispersed conference participants.
  • The equipment provides both sound and picture.
  • With video conferencing, participants can see and hear each other.

EVALUATION IN COMPUTER SCIENCE

Evaluation is integrated with the whole task of education and its purpose is to improve instruction and not merely to measure its achievements. It exercises a great influence on the pupils’ study habits, the teacher’s methods of instruction and thus helps not only to measure educational achievements but also to improve it.


PURPOSES OF EVALUATION

  • To provide for the collection of evidence which will show the degree to which the pupils are progressing towards curricular goals.
  • To permit teachers and supervisors to evaluate the effectiveness of curricular experiences, activities, and instructional methods.
  • To make provision for guiding the growth of individual pupils, to diagnose their weaknesses and strengths, to point out areas where remedial measures are desirable.
  • To provide a basis for modification of the curriculum or for the introduction of experiences to meet the needs of the individuals and groups of pupils.
  • To motivate pupils towards better attainment and growth.

TYPES OF EVALUATION

FORMATIVE EVALUATION:

A formative test is constructed to evaluate each unit. Such tests are used to make teaching-learning more effective and to give students the opportunity to get mastery over the content matter. Here, more emphasis is laid on the achievement rather than objectives

“Formative evaluation occurs over a period of time and monitors student progress”. -Wiersma and Jurs

SUMMATIVE EVALUATION

A summative test is given to students at the end of the year to measure the educational attainments and achievement of and to determine the grade or division or certificate for the individual learner. It provides a complete picture of the progress of the learner individually and aims at the total evaluation of the learner.

“Summative evaluation is done at the conclusion of instruction and measures the extent to which students have attained the desired outcomes”.-W. Wiersma & S.G. Gurs

CONTINUOUS AND COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION

CCE helps in improving student’s performance by identifying his/her learning difficulties and abilities at regular time intervals right from the beginning of the academic session and employing suitable remedial measures for enhancing their learning performance.

CCE is the modern method of evaluating all the prime dimensions of a student's personality that of how much he has been throughout.

New Scheme of Evaluation

As a part of this new system, student's marks will be replaced by grades which will be evaluated through a series of curricular and extra-curricular evaluations along with academics.

The aim is to reduce the workload on students and to improve the overall skill and ability of the student by means of evaluation of other activities.

Grades are awarded to students based on work experience skills, dexterity, innovation, steadiness, teamwork, public speaking, behavior, etc. to evaluate and present an overall measure of the student's ability. This helps the students who are not good in academics to show their talent in other fields such as arts, humanities, sports, music, athletics, etc.


TECHNIQUES AND TOOLS OF EVALUATION

  • Questionnaire
  • Rating Scale
  • Observation Method
  • Interview Method
  • Inventory
  • Assignment

ACHIEVEMENT TEST

Scholastic achievement tests constitute an important tool for evaluation. It is necessary for the teacher to know how far the pupils have attained in a particular subject area. In the school evaluation program, various forms of achievement tests are used to measure the accomplishment of the pupils.

“Any test that measures the attainments or accomplishments of an individual after a period of training or learning is called an achievement test”. – Downie
“An achievement test is a test designed to measure a person’s knowledge, skills, understanding, etc., in a given field taught in a school.” – Good’s Dictionary

An achievement test is an instrument designed to measure the accomplishment of the students in a specified area of learning, after a period of instruction.


PREPARATION OF ACHIEVEMENT TEST

The important steps envisaged in the preparation of a good teacher-made test are as under.

  1. Planning the Test
  2. Preparation of A Design
  3. Designing the Test Items
  4. Reviewing and Editing
  5. Arranging the Items
  6. Providing Directions
  7. Preparing the Scoring Key and Marking Scheme
  8. Administering the Test and Scoring
  9. Evaluating the Test

ONLINE EXAMINATIONS

  • Online Examination helps the students for appearing the exam online.
  • Its mission is to offer a quick and easy way to appear the exam and it also provides the result immediately after the exam.
  • Through partnerships with boards that are conducting the multiple-choice type examination, it can provide special advantages to the students that can't be found anywhere else.
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