Language Across The Curriculum [LAC]

Language Across The Curriculum [LAC]

LAC (Language Across the Curriculum) is an approach to learning that focuses on improving language proficiency in all subjects in order to enhance students’ learning and learning outcomes


Language Across The Curriculum subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

LANGUAGE

Language is essentially a means of communication among the members of society. In the expression of culture, language is a fundamental aspect. It is the tool that conveys traditions and values related to group identity.

It is a distinctive human quality, which expresses itself through a system of arbitrary, vocal symbols.

According to Jesperson “Language is the set of human habits, the purpose of which is to give expression to human thoughts and feelings specially to impart them to other’’

NATURE OF LANGUAGE

  1. Language is a System
  2. Language is Arbitrary
  3. The Symbols of Language are Vocal
  4. Language is a System of Symbols
  5. Language is Always Changing
  6. Language is Made Up of Habits
  7. Language is Learnt
  8. Language is Based on Common Cultural Experience
  9. Language is for Communication
  10. Every language is Unique

FUNCTIONS OF A LANGUAGE

There are three important functions of a language
  1. Informative Function
  2. Expressive Function
  3. Directive Function

LANGUAGE ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

What is Language Across the Curriculum (LAC)?

‘Language across the Curriculum’ means attempting to develop language ability not only through language classes by the language teacher but in the context of other subjects by other teachers also.

LAC is an approach to learning that focuses on improving language proficiency in all subjects in order to enhance students’ learning and outcome.

LAC acknowledges that language education does not only take place in specific subjects such as English Lessons, but language learning also takes place in each and every subject; in every learning activity; and across the whole curriculum.

  • LAC emphasizes that language development is the responsibility of all teachers across the school and in all subject areas.
  • It involves a focus on the use of English in each subject, as each subject area has both similar language to other areas and its own specific language usage and style.
  • Each subject area also has its own specialized vocabulary and different writing genres, e.g. Science report writing is different from History report writing.

Hence, the ‘Language across the Curriculum’ (LAC) approach integrates language learning and content learning.


Key Points of Language Across the Curriculum:

  • Language across the Curriculum’ (LAC) is an approach to learning that focuses on improving language proficiency in all subjects in order to enhance students’ learning and outcomes.
  • Language education does not only take place in specific subjects explicitly defined and reserved for it, such as mother tongue education, foreign language education, second language education, etc. Language learning and education also take place in each and every subject in the school, in each and every academic/mental activity, across the whole curriculum – whether we are conscious of it or not.
  • Language across the Curriculum’ (LAC) emphasizes that language development is the responsibility of all teachers across the school and in all subject areas.
  • Each subject area has both similar language aspects and patterns as in other subject areas plus its own specific language usage and style.
  • Each subject area also has its own specialized vocabulary and different writing genres, e.g., Science report writing is different from History report writing.

Goals of Language Across the Curriculum

  • It aims to support language development in each and every child.
  • It also aims at giving the children feedback about their progress (through appropriate assessment and evaluation).

Multilingualism

Multilingualism refers to an individual speaker, who uses two or more languages or to a community of speakers, where the use of more than one language is common.


Home Language and School Language

Home language is a language that is most commonly spoken by the members of a family for everyday interactions at home. It is also called family language or the language of the home.

The language used at school normally for academic purposes likes to teach in the classroom, to interact with students on different occasions, daily communication, etc. is known as the school language.

In the majority of the cases in India, the language used at home is different from that of the school or such official institutions. The language used at school is standard or a teacher-centered one.


LEARNING OF A SECOND LANGUAGE – INFLUENCE OF MOTHER TONGUE

Learning a second language is in some measure repeating an old experience. A learner who has learned one language knows a lot about human language. The difference may occur in any feature of the language – sounds, words, or structures.

When we learn the mother tongue, it is a natural process. There is no hindrance to its learning. While for the other or foreign langue-English, it is an artificial process.

We are helped by members of the family, friends, teachers, social-functionaries, and one and all, in our learning the mother tongue. This is not possible in the learning of the other tongue- English.

  • A learner is surrounded from all sides by the mother tongue. While learning English, this is not easy.
  • Language learning is a matter of growth and maturation of relatively fixed capacities, under appropriate conditions.
  • As for as the mother tongue is concerned, there is a natural biological need to learn and there is also the social compulsion to learn it.
  • The child gets sufficient scope for practice in his daily environment.
  • Everyone with whom he comes in to contact is his day-to-day life as his teacher and model for imitation.
  • The child practices the language without being conscious of the fact that he is learning a highly complex code.

USING FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE IN THE CLASSROOM

  • In the case of a second language, the child has to learn it deliberately, usually in a formal classroom situation.
  • The environment is not contributing to his learning of the second language.
  • The mother tongue influences the students learning of a second language in many ways.
  • The student’s ability in the first language and experience in the use of the language skills of the mother tongue influence learning of the second language.
  • He is able to transfer the skills to the learning of a second language.
  • The positive transfer of the experiences facilitates the learning of a second language and the negative transfer interferes with the learning.

TRI LANGUAGE SYSTEM (THREE LANGUAGE FORMULA)

Different committees and commissions have given their suggestions to solve the language problem in the country.

The Central Advisory Board of Education (1956) designed a three-language formula and recommended it for the school children.

Then in 1961, the Chief Ministers’ Conference endorsed the three-language formula for the schools.

According to the three-language formula, every school-going child has required to study the following three languages.

  1. Mother tongue or the regional language
  2. English
  3. Hindi for non-Hindi speaking areas
  • If the mother tongue is Hindi, then another modern Indian language.
  • If the mother tongue of the child is Urdu, he/she will have to study Urdu, English, and Hindi.
  • On the other hand, if the mother tongue of the child in Hindi, he will be required to learn, Hindi, English, and one more Indian language.
  • Thus in Punjab, the students learn Punjabi, English, and Hindi and in Haryana, the students learn Hindi, English, and Punjabi. In U.P., the students learn Hindi, English, and Sanskrit.

Kothari Commission

  • Kothari Commission (1964-66) modified the language formula.
  • According to the commission, regional language should be taught at the primary stage (class 1st to 5th)
  • At the higher primary stage (class 5th to 8th) mother tongue or Hindi / Mother tongue or English should be taught compulsorily and the third language should be taught on an optional basis.
  • In classes 7th to 10th, the students should study three languages. Thus, in Hindi speaking areas, the students will study Hindi, English, and a modern Indian language. In non-Hindi speaking areas, the students will study regional language, Hindi, and English.

COMMUNICATION

Teaching is communicating and, in this sense, good teachers are always good communicators.

One can communicate his ideas, thoughts, and feelings, etc. or transfer any type of information and knowledge to others through this act of communication.

“Communication means sharing of ideas and feelings in a mood of mutuality”.

ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION

  1. Message
  2. Symbol
  3. Channel
  4. Encoding
  5. Decoding
  6. Feedback
  7. Noise

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION

  1. Verbal and Non-Verbal Communication
  2. Natural and Mechanical Communication

LSRW SKILLS (Listening, Speaking, Reading, and Writing)

Language learning is a skill. A language can be learned by an individual not simply by knowing about the language; but by using it.

In recent years, the emphasis has been shifted to the teaching of language as a means of communication from the teaching of language as a system.

It has resulted in the teaching of language as developing the four language skills, viz.,

  1. Listening
  2. Specking
  3. Reading
  4. Writing

LISTENING SKILL

Listening is the ability to understand what others speak or say. In the process of communication, we find both the speaker and the listener.


SPEAKING SKILL

The most important among the four skills of a language is speaking or speech. Mostly the need to learn a new language arises only when one is faced with a situation, where one is required to converse in a new language.


READING SKILL

  • The word, ’reading’ implies reading with comprehension. Reading comprehension involves understanding the meaning of content, vocabulary, structures, concepts, and relationships of ideas.
  • Reading like listening is a decoding process.
  • But it is a very complex process involving many physical, intellectual, and often emotional reactions.
  • Moreover, it entails the ability to recognize graphic symbols and their corresponding vocal sounds.

WRITING SKILL

Out of the four skills in language learning, ‘writing is a very important skill, as it serves as the medium through which we communicate our ideas, thoughts, or feelings to other people who are at a distance from us.

In fact, language learning is said to be incomplete without developing the skill of writing.


DIFFERENT ACTIVITIES FOR LSRW SKILLS

ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING LISTENING SKILLS

  • Dictation
  • Listening telephone call
  • Commentaries and listening instruction

ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING SPEAKING SKILLS

  • Conversation
  • Group discussion
  • Debates
  • Interviews

ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING READING SKILLS

  • The alphabet method
  • The phonic or syllabic method
  • Word method or look and say the method
  • Phrase and sentence method
  • Sentence group method

LANGUAGE LABORATORY

  • The language laboratory is a self-learning device.
  • It enables the learner to hear the language spoken from recorded tapes and to practice speaking in the same manner.
  • The language laboratory concentrates on listening (understanding) and speaking, leaving the other two processes, reading and writing to be developed later.
  • It aims at the development of correct pronunciation, intonation and accent, etc

QUALITY OF LANGUAGE TEACHER

The teacher of English plays an important role in the life of the English learners because he is teaching a new language to non- native speakers of English. Language is one of the effective means of communication.

The ultimate aims and objectives of the teacher of English are to develop the four basic skills namely listening, speaking, reading, and writing.

The teacher of English should possess a lot of qualities so that he could inculcate his best qualities among the students who are studying under them.

PERSONAL QUALITIES OF AN ENGLISH TEACHER

A good teacher of English
  • Has personal qualities like commitment, confidence, enthusiasm, cheerfulness, patience, broad-mindedness, and sense of humor.
  • Has good knowledge of subject matter and mastery over basic skills.
  • Makes the students recognize the purpose behind studying each topic or chapter.
  • Gives information in a simplified and structured way.
  • Recognizes individual differences

ROLE OF LANGUAGE TEACHER

  • The role of English teachers has an important impact on the development of language skills among the students.
  • The first and very important role of the English teacher is to develop four English language skills among his students.
  • Motivate the students to learn and work towards their goals.
  • Teachers should adopt suitable strategies and methods to generate interest to learn.
  • Due consideration should be given to the individuality and learning diversity of the students.
  • Teachers should employ creativity in their teaching methods.
  • Teaching should foster the development of a strong attitude, habits, discipline, character, life skills, and self-esteem in them.

CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD LANGUAGE TEACHER

  • Establishes a healthy, carrying approachable relationship with the students.
  • Creates a learner-centered classroom
  • Knows to ask appropriate questions and possess good questioning skills.
  • Encourages learning that extends beyond the classroom to the wider world.
  • Selects and uses most appropriate instructional materials to strengthen the quality of teaching and generate a fair amount of interest in them
  • Selects suitable methods of teaching appropriate to the nature of the lesson.
  • Encourage students to be more imaginative and creative.

Further References:

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