PEDAGOGY OF GEOGRAPHY [ Teaching of Geography ]

PEDAGOGY OF GEOGRAPHY [ Teaching of Geography ]

“Geography Is A Science of Man on The Earth Studying the Action and Interaction Between Man & Nature.”


PEDAGOGY OF GEOGRAPHY or Teaching of Geography subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

WHAT IS GEOGRAPHY?

Geography has been derived from the words, ‘geo’ and ‘graphy’. ‘Geo’ means earth and ‘graphy’ means ‘study’ or ‘description’. The first person to use the word “geography” was Eratothenes (276-194.B.C.).

Geography is the study of the earth and its lands, features, inhabitants, and phenomena.

According to Macnee, “Geography is the study of earth as the home or in other words, Geography is the study of the environment of man, physical and social, particularly with relation to human activities.”
Preston James- “Geography deals with the association of phenomena that gives character to particular places & with the likeness and differences among places”.
Cholley has expressed his view “The object of geography is known the earth.”

Scope of Geography

The scope of geography has become so vast and complex that a need has arisen for specialization. As a result, the subject matter has broken up into a number of branches as shown below:

  1. Physiography: This branch studies relief, soil, and structure of the earth.

  2. Economic Geography: This concerns the production and distribution of the raw materials in the country.

  3. Human Geography: The subject covers the evolution of mankind, its different races, their distribution, and man’s adaption to environments.

  4. Political Geography: Political Geography had its birth in the research of finding out the relations between man, his physical environments, and the state to which the individual belonged.

  5. Cartography: The art of drawing maps and charts.

  6. Urban Geography: Urban geography brings a clear focus to the concepts of location, interaction, and accessibility as well as the distribution and movements of the population.

  7. Anthropogeography: The study of the distribution of human communities on the earth in relation to their geographical environment.

  8. Agricultural Geography: Agricultural Geography helps a geographer to understand how particular kinds of farms and farming systems have developed in particular areas and how they are similar to or different from the farms and farming systems of other areas.


AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING GEOGRAPHY IN SCHOOLS

  • To acquaint the pupils with the living conditions of men in different parts of the globe.
  • To enable the pupils to acquire a knowledge of natural resources.
  • To develop in pupils an understanding of how the environment and climatic factors have influenced our life.
  • To help the pupils to acquire knowledge of their physical and social environment.
  • To train the pupils in nature study.
  • To develop the power of thinking.
  • To develop a love for the nation.
  • To develop the creative talents of pupils.
  • To develop the skills of reading maps and globes.
  • To enable the pupils to appreciate natural beauty.
  • To adjust human life in accordance with geographical circumstances.
  • To develop a scientific attitude.

NEED AND SIGNIFICANCE OF TEACHING GEOGRAPHY

  1. Intellectual Development
  2. Knowledge of the world and the broadening outlook
  3. Development of quality of generosity and sympathetic outlook
  4. Quality of adjustment with the environment
  5. Economic Efficiency
  6. Development of power of reasoning, invention, and discovery
  7. Development of Balanced personality
  8. Love for nature, travels, and knowledge about other countries
  9. Acquisition of knowledge of Natural Resources
  10. Development of International Understanding
  11. Knowledge about the influences of geographical factors on man
  12. Help Development of Human Civilization
  13. Development of a Nation

VALUES OF TEACHING GEOGRAPHY

In the words of Fair grieve “The real value of geography lies in the fact it helps man to place himself in the world to learn his true position & duties”.

Knowledge of geography is quite handy to prepare the students to face various problems of life. Thus, we find that knowledge of geography has a practical utility.


Cultural Values

  • Develops a feeling of patriotism.
  • Develops a love for nature.
  • Develops the idea of world citizenship.

Intellectual Values

  • Develops the understanding of carrying livelihood.
  • Develops the power of observation.
  • Develops the power of thinking, reasoning, and imagination.
  • Develops the creative talents of pupils.
  • Develops the skills of reading maps and globes.
  • Develops scientific attitude.

Social or Citizenship Values

  • Developing sympathy for the lives and problems of other people.
  • Enables the child to leave his self-centered isolation.
  • Helps pupils appraise their real worth.
  • Impart knowledge of geography for the solution of economic, social, and political problems.

INSTRUCTIONAL PLANNING FOR TEACHING GEOGRAPHY

Planning means making decisions about

  • What information to present?
  • How to present the information? And
  • How to communicate realistic expectations to students?

STEPS IN PLANNING A LESSON

A lesson plan is the instructor’s road map of what students need to learn and how it will be done effectively during class time.

Herbartian steps for lesson planning are as follows:

  1. Preparation
  2. Presentation
  3. Association and comparison
  4. Generalization
  5. Application
  6. Recapitulation

DESIGNING A UNIT PLAN

According to wisely – “The unit is an organized body of information and experience designed to effect significant outcome for the learner”

A unit plan involves

  • Planning a teaching unit,
  • Teaching methods,
  • Evaluation of teaching activities,
  • Diagnosing and remedial steps

BLOOM’S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES

  • Benjamin Bloom has been extremely influential in clarifying and organizing educational thoughts regarding the classification of objectives.
  • His original work being carried out during the 1950s.

Bloom and his co-workers contended that objectives are attainable in three distinct areas or domains

  1. Cognitive Domain
  2. Affective Domain
  3. Psychomotor Domain

The cognitive domain

This contains objectives which are related to the

  • Acquisition and application of knowledge and understanding, and
  • Probably includes the great majority of educational and training objectives.

Bloom and his co-workers also divided the cognitive domain into six distinct levels.


TYPES OF TEST IN GEOGRAPHY

  1. Multiple-Choice Tests
  2. True-False Tests
  3. Matching Tests
  4. Essay Tests
  5. Short-Answer Tests
  6. Problem sets
  7. Oral exams

TEACHING SKILLS IN GEOGRAPHY

Teaching includes all the activities of providing education to others. The person who provides education is called the teacher.

Teaching means the interaction between teachers and students.

Teaching skills would include

  • Providing training and practice in different techniques,
  • Approaches and strategies that would help the teachers to plan and impart instruction,
  • Provide appropriate reinforcement and
  • Conduct effective assessment

MAJOR TEACHING SKILLS

  1. Skill of Introducing
  2. Skill of Explaining
  3. Skill of Questioning
  4. The skill of Varying the Stimulus
  5. Non – Verbal Cues
  6. Skill of Reinforcement
  7. Skill of Closure
  8. Fluency in Communication

METHODS OF TEACHING GEOGRAPHY

A teacher has to make uses of various kinds of methods, devices, and techniques in teaching. Every method has certain merits and few demerits and it is the work of a teacher to decide which method is best for the students.

TEACHER–CENTERED METHODS

  1. Lecture Method
  2. Demonstration Method
  3. Team Teaching

LECTURE METHOD

The lecture method is the most widely used form of presentation. Every teacher has to know how to develop and present a lecture.

Lecturers are used to

  • Introduce new topics,
  • Summarizing ideas,
  • Showing relationships between theory and practice,
  • Reemphasizing main points, etc.

This method is adaptable to many different settings (small or large groups).


DEMONSTRATION METHOD

Teachers not only use demonstrate specific learning concepts within the classroom, they can also participate in demonstration classrooms to help improve their own teaching strategies, which may or may not be demonstrative in nature.


TEAM TEACHING

  • Team teaching involves a group of instructors working purposefully, regularly, and cooperatively to help a group of students of any age learn.
  • Teachers together set goals for a course, design a syllabus, prepare individual lesson plans, teach students, and evaluate the results.
  • They share insights, argue with one another, and perhaps even challenge students to decide which approach is better.

LEARNER CENTERED METHODS

Learner-centered methods are those methods where the focus of attraction is learners than teachers.


PROJECT METHOD

The project method owes its origin to the pragmatic school of philosophy. It was Propound by W H. Kilpatrick and was perfected by J. A. Stevenson.

The method consists of building a comprehensive unit around an activity that may be carried out in the school or outside. The essence of this method is to carry out a useful task in a group in which all the students work co-operatively.

“A project is a bit of real life that has been imparted in to the school” - Ballard

Major Steps of the Project Method

  1. Providing a situation
  2. Choosing and purposing
  3. Planning
  4. Carrying out the project (executing)
  5. Evaluating
  6. Recording

PEER TUTORING

Peer tutoring is a flexible, peer-mediated strategy that involves students serving as academic tutors and tutees.

Typically, a higher-performing student is paired with a lower performing student to review critical academic or behavioral concepts.


INDIVIDUAL ACTIVITIES

Wherever possible, the participant is introduced to others who might share their interests, by phone, letter or visiting.


EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING

The word experiential essentially means that learning and development are achieved through personally determined experience and involvement, rather than on received teaching or training.


PROBLEM - SOLVING METHOD

The method is defined as a planned attack upon a difficulty for finding a solution

Steps in Problem Solving Method

  1. Sensing the problem
  2. Interpreting, defining, and delimiting the problem.
  3. Collecting relevant data
  4. Organizing and evaluating the data
  5. Formulating tentative solution
  6. Drawing conclusion and making a generalization
  7. Application of generalization to the new situation

SEMINAR

It has the function of bringing together small groups for recurring meetings, focusing each time on some particular subject, in which everyone resent is requested to actively participate.

Some Tips for Seminar Preparation

  • Choose A Topic
  • Keep Your Audience in Mind
  • Tell A Story/ Anecdote
  • Keep Timing in Mind

GROUP DISCUSSIONS

Discussion is an active process of teacher-pupil involvement in the classroom environment. This allows a student to presents its own perspective about something freely.


MIXED ABILITY GROUPING

It refers to grouping together students of different abilities. Usually, this kind of grouping occurs when the group consists of students of different ages with a one- or two-years span.


RECENT TRENDS IN TEACHING GEOGRAPHY

  • Constructivist Learning
  • Problem Based Learning
  • Brain-Based Learning
  • Collaborative Learning
  • Flipped Learning
  • Blended Learning
  • E-Learning Trends
  • Video Conferencing

RESOURCES FOR TEACHING GEOGRAPHY

Teachers use a wide range of stimulating and exciting materials to teach the concepts outlined in the curriculum to ensure that students are actively involved in their learning.

Some of the Resources for Teaching Geography are:

PRINT RESOURCES

  • News Papers
  • Journals
  • Geography Encyclopedias

AUDIO RESOURCES

  • Radio talk
  • Audiotapes
  • DVDs and CDs

VISUAL RESOURCES

  • Pictures
  • Charts
  • Posters
  • Photographs
  • FlashCards
  • Maps
  • Specimens
  • Models

ICT RESOURCES

  • Radio
  • Television
  • Internet
  • Multimedia
  • Interactive White Board

COMMUNITY RESOURCES

  • Field Trips
  • Geography Exhibitions/Fair
  • Geography Club

Qualities of a Geography Teacher

A Geography teacher should

  • Motivate and engage the students.
  • Convey the beauty of the subject.
  • Encourage their students to go beyond the classroom with their learning.
  • Help them feel confident in their geographical abilities.
  • Have sound subject knowledge.
  • Make the subject easier by adopting a suitable strategy.
  • Provide guidance and support to the students while solving the problem.
  • Have a good attitude and actions.
Further References:

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