Levels Of Teaching - Memory, Understanding & Reflective Level of Teaching

Levels Of Teaching - Memory, Understanding & Reflective Level of Teaching

Levels Of Teaching

Teaching is a purposive activity; the purpose is to bring about desirable changes in the learner through learning.

There are 3 Levels of Teaching
  1. Memory Level – Thoughtless
  2. Understanding Level – Thoughtful
  3. Reflective Level – Upper Thoughtful

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Memory Level of Teaching

Meaning of Memory Level of Teaching

  • The objective of teaching at this level is just to impart information to students. The learner is required to memorize the subject matter and get the information stored in long term memory.
  • Herbart is considered the exponent of memory level of teaching
  • The learner has to learn the material, retain the meaningful material, and reproduce that when asked for.

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Elements of Memory Level of Teaching

1. Objective:

  • The Objective of the Memory Level of teaching is Just to impart information or knowledge to the learner.  
  • This knowledge or information is factual in nature, which is acquired through a mechanical process (i.e. memorization or rote learning)

2. Aims of Memory Level of Teaching:

  1. To get factual information
  2. To train memory faculty
  3. To retrain the learning material in-memory storage
  4. To reproduce and recognize the learned information when required

>> Memory Level covers only the knowledge-based objective of Bloom’s taxonomy where the students learn to identify, recall, or remember the objects, events, ideas, and concepts and retain them in memory.

3. Nature of Subject Matter in Memory Level:

  1. Subject matter should be structured and well organized and of simple nature that can be acquired through rote learning and can be retained and recalled.
  2. Subject matter included information about simple concepts, terms, and elements related to different things of the world around.

4. Methods Used by the teacher in-memory level teaching:

  • Teacher dominated methods are used- like drill, review, and revision and asking questions.
  • Drill means repetition or practice for the purpose of attaining proficiency in memorizing the material.
  • Review and Revision is revising the elements to related them with new experience and to form a new association for the development of new skills or learning to solve new problems
  • Asking the question is to examine whether or not the knowledge level objectives of teaching have been achieved.

5. Role of The Teacher in Memory Level of Teaching :

  1. Dominating, active and authoritarian role
  2. He is the authority to instruct, deliver, direct, control and evaluate the performances
  3. Takes initiatives, present the subject matter, directs the learner to do the activity in the desired manner, plan exercises
  4. Right from the selection of the subject matter to its evaluation, the key process of teaching-learning remains with the teacher.

6. Role of Learner in Memory Level of Teaching:

  • There is a Passive role of the learner in the memory level.
  • Passive listener desired to do as directed by the teacher
  • Instructional material delivered by the teacher and the learner has to memorize it in a mechanical manner.
  • Little understanding is applied by the learner.

7. Teaching Equipment used by the teacher in Memory level of teaching:

Teaching aids like visual, audio and audiovisual aids, eg. Models, charts, maps, pictures, TV, Radio, computers, film strips, etc should be sued to develop curiosity among the students.

8. Nature of motivation which is required in memory level:

  • When students learn something naturally, we call it intrinsic motivation
  • When learning is caused by external forces, we call it extrinsic motivation.
  • In the memory level of teaching the nature of motivation is extrinsic.

9. Evaluation System:

  1. Oral and written tests are used to test the memory of the students
  2. In evaluation, written test, short type test, recall type, recognition type, multiple-choice, alternative type, and matching type the test is employed.

Advantages of Memory Level of Teaching :

Some of the Advantages, Merits, and Importance of Memory Level Teaching Are:
  1. Useful for young children
  2. Useful for the acquisition of facts, information of models and structure
  3. Help children learn a new concept
  4. Useful for slow learners
  5. The basis for understanding and reflective level of teaching.

Disadvantages of Memory Level of Teaching:

Some of the Demerits and Disadvantages of Memory Level Teaching are:
  1. Not suitable for higher classes
  2. Use of rote memory
  3. Dominance of teacher
  4. Little interaction in the classroom
  5. No room for initiation and self-learning for the students
  6. Not intrinsic motivation
  7. The problem of classroom  management
  8. Loss of retention and recall

Suggestions for Memory Level Teaching:

  • Teaching material should be meaningful and purposeful
  • Adequate and appropriate teaching aids
  • Subject matter should be integrated and well-sequenced
  • Continuous evaluation
  • More drill work
  • Motivation
  • Whole to the part method should be used
  • Repetition
  • Practice and exercise

Understanding Level of Teaching

Concept, Meaning, and Introduction to Understanding Level of Teaching:

  • Understanding implies to know the meanings of things and concepts, to grasp ideas, to interpret some relationship, to comprehend the facts, and to infer one thing from some other.
  • At this level, the learners and required to comprehend factual information, to know the meaning of different concepts and their relationships, and to apply facts, concepts, and principles.
  • It is supported by the Herbartian Theory of apperception, which states that this level of teaching seeks the learner to acquaint himself with the relationship between the facts and principles. Here the mental development of the learner is at a higher level than memory level. His cognitive abilities are well developed now; he can think, reason out, imagine, can present things logically; can analyze and synthesize, and can evaluate the relationship between the principles and facts.
  • The development of the cognitive abilities of the learner is at the operational stage as stated by Jean Piaget.
  • Learner at this stage needs to comprehend a large number of concepts, elements, facts, principles; to know the relationship between facts and principles, to make a generalization and to draw interference therefrom.

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Steps of Herbartian Theory of Apperception:

  1. Preparation and Introduction
  2. Presentation
  3. Comparison, Association, and Abstraction
  4. Generalization
  5. Application
  6. Evaluation

Elements of the Understanding level of Teaching:

1. Aims and Objectives:

According to Bloom’s Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956):

  • Comprehension Objectives: Comprised of: Translation. Interpretations and extrapolation
  • Application Objective: Efficiency to apply to comprehend knowledge in various similar and different situations and settings.

According to Bloom’s revised Taxonomy:

  • Understanding Objectives: It pertains to the Understanding of instructional messages (Maybe oral, written or graphical, etc.), By means of Interpretation, exemplifying, classifying, summarizing, inferring, comparing and explaining, etc.
  • Application Objective: Application objectives include the use of the proper procedure for Executing Implementing; the use of generalized rule or principle in practical life situations.  The student acquaints themselves with the ideas for facts with full understanding and their application.

2. Nature of Subject matter:

The nature of the subject matter is wide, larger in number and quality.

3. Methods used:

  • Lecture method
  • Lecture demonstration method
  • Discussion method
  • Inductive and deductive method
  • Exemplification and explanation

4. Classroom Climate:

  • The classroom climate is more lively and encouraging
  • The problem of discipline is also less

5. Nature of Motivation:

  • Students start learning at this level for two reasons
  • They are asked by the teacher to learn
  • Their internal forces insist upon them to learn 

6. Teaching Equipment:

Different charts, models, flashcards, pictures, TV and many more electronic devices are used as teaching equipment.

7. Evaluation:

The teacher has to evaluate the ability to comprehend, grasp, synthesize, discriminate and generalize; and the insight to apply the generalized principles further so, the tests and tools should be properly planned and devised. Besides asking questions for oral testing, written testing should be conducted

8. Role of the teacher:

  • The teacher is a prominent figure
  • Not so dominating and authoritarian

9. Role of the learner:

  • The role of the learner in understating the level of teaching is not so passive.
  • He may put questions to clarify his doubts.

Importance of understating the level of teaching: 

Some of the Merits and Advantages of Understanding Level Teaching are:
  • Effective learning
  • Development of different cognition abilities
  • Sets stages for entering into the reflective level of teaching
  • Effective classroom interaction

Disadvantages of Understanding Level of Teaching:

Some Demerits of Understanding Level Teaching are:
  • It ignores higher cognitive abilities
  • Less emphasis on intrinsic motivation
  • No individualized learning
  • Teacher centered

Suggestions for Understanding Level of teaching:

  1. There should be effective classroom interaction
  2. Organized subject matter
  3. Meaningfulness for the subject –matter
  4. An effective method of teaching
  5. Use of teaching aids
  6. Proper classroom environment

Reflective Level of Teaching

Concept, Meaning, and Introduction to Reflective Level of Teaching:

This Level of teaching is the highest level of teaching-learning activity. It is the stage of learning when students do not merely repeat and revise or answer the questions as asked for; nor do they only understand, learn, interrelate or interpret the concepts but also they ponder upon, contemplate and pay serious thoughtful consideration to the presented contents.

Definition: Morris L. Bigge defines reflection as, “careful, critical examination of an idea or supposed article of knowledge in the light of testing evidence which supports it and the further conclusions towards which it points. 

  • Reflective level teaching does not depend upon the memorization, understanding of concepts, and their application only; it demands the use of higher mental processes such as reasoning, thinking, analyzing concepts, imagination, ideas and thoughts; and other bodies of knowledge critically, finding out the facts.
  • Reflective level teaching-learning comprises the highest level of learning by the learner to develop new insight to solve problems, to explore the field of knowledge, to discover, to test and retest the achieved facts, to understand and present generalizations in the light of the new evidence.

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Elements of Reflective Level of Teaching:

1. Objectives:

  • To develop insight into the learner to solve problems.
  • To develop rational and critical thinking in the students.
  • To develop the ability of independent thinking and decision making in the students.

2. Nature of Subject Matter:

This level of teaching the subject matter is mainly unstructured and open-ended. It is concerned with the problem rather than the subject.

3. Teaching Learning Process:

The process of teaching and learning at this level is dynamic and unique. The students are provided with problematic situations and they need to follow certain procedures to solve the problems independently.

4. Methods Used:

  1. Problem-solving method
  2. Investigating projects
  3. Heuristic method
  4. Experimental method
  5. Inquiry oriented method
  6. Analytic method

5. Nature of Motivation:

The Nature of motivation is intrinsic because all learning activities depend upon the felt needs of the learner.

6. Evaluation System:

The Evaluation System at the reflective level of teaching should test the higher-order cognitive abilities like reasoning, creativity, original thinking, problem-solving, critical thinking, etc.

7. Role of the teacher:

The role of the teacher is not so dominating and authoritarian. He is responsible for the creation and maintenance of the democratic, dynamic atmosphere where the teaching-learning activities can be carried out smoothly. 

Merits Reflective Level Of Teaching:

  • It is the most thoughtful mode of operation.
  • Learner-centered approach
  • Development of problem-solving ability
  • Useful for gifted children.
  • Provides maximum flexibility
  • Self-motivation
  • Development of creativity

Demerits of Reflective Level of Teaching:

  • It is not suitable for lower classes
  • It is a time-consuming process.
  • This level of teaching is not suitable for the Indian classroom.
  • It is not applicable for dull students.
  • There is an excess burden to the teacher.

Suggestions for the Reflective level of teaching:

  • The proper atmosphere should be provided.
  • Creating problematic situations.
  • Proper direction
  • Proper evaluation
  • Proper atmosphere
  • Encourage independent learning 

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