Creating An Inclusive School [Inclusive Education]

Creating An Inclusive School [Inclusive Education]

Inclusive education refers to an academic system that allows special education students to become included in mainstream classes alongside their peers.


Creating An Inclusive School subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

Education is the fundamental right of every child.

Swami Vivekananda emphasizes “If special children are unable to move towards education, the education should go towards them”.

MEANING OF INCLUSION

Inclusion is the action or state of including or of being included within a group or structure. It also means the act of including someone or something as part of a group, list, etc


INCLUSIVE EDUCATION

  • Inclusion in education is an approach to educating students with special educational needs.
  • Under the inclusion model, students with special needs spend most of their time with non- disabled students.
  • Inclusion rejects the use of special schools or classrooms to separate students with disabilities from students without disabilities.

Meaning of Inclusive Education

Schools most frequently use the inclusion model for selected students with mild to moderate special needs.

Inclusive Education does not separate "general education" and "special education" programs; instead, the school is restructured so that all students learn together.

Inclusive education is a process of strengthening the capacity of the education system to reach out to all learners and can thus be understood as a key strategy to achieve education for all.


Barriers to Inclusive Education

The greatest barriers to inclusion are caused by society. Negative attitudes towards differences result in discrimination and can lead to a serious barrier to learning.


Physical Barriers

  • The vast majority of centers of learning are physically inaccessible to many learners, especially to those who have physical disabilities.
  • In poorer, particularly rural areas, the centers of learning are often inaccessible largely because buildings are rundown or poorly maintained.
  • They are unhealthy and unsafe for all learners.
  • Many schools are not equipped to respond to special needs.
  • A major problem identified by many students is physically getting into school.

Curriculum

  • In any education system, the curriculum is one of the major obstacles or tools to facilitate the development of a more inclusive system.
  • The curriculum is often unable to meet the needs of a wide range of different learners.

Teachers

  • Teachers' abilities and attitudes can be major limitations for inclusive education.
  • The training of staff at all levels is often not adequate.
  • If teachers do not have positive attitudes towards learners with special needs, it is unlikely that these children will receive a satisfactory education.

Language and Communication

  • Teaching and learning often take place through a language which is not the first language of some learners.
  • This places these learners, at a disadvantage and it often leads to significant linguistic difficulties that contribute to learning breakdown.
  • Second language learners are particularly subject to low expectations and discrimination.

Overcoming the Barriers in Inclusive Education

Creating a more inclusive system requires a new approach in attitude. Simply placing children with special needs within the school system will not lead to meaningful inclusion.

The barriers to inclusive education can be overcome:
  • By providing Teacher training and support.
  • By promoting inclusive education.

DISABILITY

WHAT IS DISABILITY?

Disability is defined as “any restriction or lack of ability to perform an activity in the manner or within the range considered normal for a human being”.

A person is considered either disabled or not, depending on the extent to which he or she can function in the given society.


IMPAIRMENT

  • Impairment is the loss of an organ or the defect in the structure and function of the organs of a person.
  • This defect may be temporary or permanent.

CHARACTERISTICS OF DISABILITIES

Some of the characteristics of disability are:
  1. Due to loss or abnormality of physical organs.
  2. Disorders due to the dysfunction of organs of the body.
  3. Impairment of organs of the body.
  4. Due to genetic disorder
  5. Due to developmental defects
  6. Due to accidents or diseases

CAUSES OF DISABILITIES

  • Genetic Disorders
  • Severe Malnutrition
  • Diseases like Polio, Paralysis, Brain fever, cerebral palsy, etc.
  • Adverse effects of drugs consumed during pregnancy
  • Artificial fertilization
  • Problems during delivery
  • Severe accidents

HEARING IMPAIRMENT

Defect in listening and understanding the conversations are called listening disabilities.

  • It affects the natural growth of children and behavior.
  • Especially it affects hearing, speaking, and understanding abilities.
  • Hearing-impaired children face more difficulty in hearing, speaking, and communicating with others.
  • These children have fewer speaking skills.

SYMPTOMS OF HEARING IMPAIRMENT

Some of the symptoms of hearing impairment are:
  1. Non- response (shock) of the child for loud clapping within 3 feet.
  2. Unable to turn towards the direction of the sound.
  3. Delay in understanding
  4. Insist the teacher to repeat the taught units
  5. Keen observation of the facial expressions of teacher, while talking
  6. Very low-level skills in Listening and Understanding
  7. More stammering while speaking
  8. Very poor in reading
  9. Bend head to listen to the side of speakers.
  10. Differences in voice, sound, and pronunciation.

REASONS FOR HEARING IMPAIRMENT

  1. Genetical factors (Related to Genes)
  2. Non Genetical factors (Not related to Genes)

ROLE OF TEACHERS IN TEACHING THE HEARING IMPAIRMENT

  1. Hearing-impaired children must have a good view of the teacher in the classroom.
  2. The teachers should use more teaching-learning materials; especially more visual pictures are to be used.
  3. While teaching new lessons, real objects must be used.
  4. More reading practice is given to the learners.
  5. While teaching new lessons, the teacher writes it on the blackboard and explains the contents.
  6. Provide opportunities for visual experiences.
  7. Make use of mirrors for speech practice.
  8. Poems are taught with rhythm and music.
  9. Train the students to read simple sentences.
  10. Provide opportunities for the children to learn drama & conversation lessons in a simple way.

SPEECH IMPAIRMENT

The controlled movement of the speech organs like mouth, tongue, throat, jaw, trachea, vocal cords, hard & soft palate, produce different types of sounds.

If there is a defect in any of the speech organs, the speaker fails to utter the words appropriately. This deficiency is known as speech impairment.


CAUSES FOR SPEECH IMPAIRMENT

  1. Insufficient brain growth
  2. Incomplete growth of inner ear organs
  3. Uncontrollable movements in the speech organs
  4. Multi-language speaking environment
  5. Shyness and fear
  6. Inability to understand language sounds
  7. Cleft in lips
  8. Thick tongue
  9. Stammering
  10. Knowledge of a few Vocabularies

SYMPTOMS OF SPEECH IMPAIRMENT

  • Difficulty in speaking continuously
  • Inordinate delay in speaking a word
  • They are always in the grip of fear and tension

TYPES OF SPEECH IMPAIRMENT

  1. Defects in articulation
  2. Defects in voice
  3. Defects in fluency

VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

Eye diseases, accidents, and defects by birth are the causes of visual impairment. They have the less visual ability. Some visual defects can be cured by treatment.


TYPES OF VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

  • Low vision
  • Total Blindness

REASONS FOR VISUAL IMPAIRMENT

  1. Cataract
  2. Vitamin A deficiency
  3. Trachoma
  4. Accident
  5. Hereditary disease
  6. Malnutrition
  7. Brain Tumor
  8. Diabetes in childhood

PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED

If any part of our body becomes inactivated, it is called physically challenged.


COMMON SYMPTOMS OF PHYSICALLY CHALLENGED

  1. Non-cooperation of body organs with its movements
  2. Pain in joints while moving
  3. Struggle in sitting, getting up, and walking
  4. Incapable of using legs and hands normally
  5. Uncontrollable body movements
  6. Getting tired easily
  7. Delay in activities
  8. Cheeks and fingers become blue in color
  9. Inferiority complex
  10. Hands, legs, and feet in folded condition

PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS

A psychological disorder, also known as a mental disorder is a pattern of behavioral or psychological symptoms that impact multiple life areas and create distress for the person experiencing these symptoms.


NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

Neurodevelopmental disorders are those that are typically diagnosed during infancy, childhood, or adolescence.


These psychological disorders include:
  • Intellectual
  • Global developmental delay
  • Communication disorders
  • Autism spectrum disorder
  • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

MENTALLY RETARDED

CAUSES FOR MENTALLY RETARDED

  • Brain Fever
  • Genetically impaired
  • Defect in the nervous system and spinal cord
  • Low supply of oxygen to the brain during birth
  • The deep head wound during birth

SYMPTOMS OF MENTAL RETARDED

  1. Delay in all growth and development
  2. Not able to sit even after 12-15 months
  3. Not able to walk even after two years
  4. Not able to speak even after two years
  5. Not able to eat and dress independently
  6. Dependence on answering nature calls
  7. Difficulty in playing with their peer.
  8. Inability to communicate personal needs.
  9. Difficulty in understanding two or more orders at the same time.
  10. No progress in studies.
  11. Inattentive and excess loss of memory.
  12. Not able to participate in all classroom activities.
  13. Inability to sit in the same place for a long time.

PROBLEMS FACED BY MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

  • Difficulty in understanding concepts in the same method.
  • Loss of memory power.
  • Difficulties in problem-solving
  • Distraction in concentration.

TEACHERS ROLE FOR MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN

  1. It is important to develop life skills in the teaching-learning activities for these children.
  2. The parts of the body can be introduced by showing the different parts of organs.
  3. Retention of a learned skill is possible by the repetition of teaching skills.
  4. Training is given to developing memory power.
  5. Teach the methods of routine activities or duties. Ex: To wash hands before and after taking food. Wear clean clothes after bathing. To use toilets properly.

CEREBRAL PALSY

Cerebral palsy (CP) refers to a group of disorders that affect muscle movement and coordination.

In many cases, vision, hearing, and the sensation is also affected.

The word “cerebral” means having to do with the brain. The word “palsy” means weakness or problems with body movement.


SYMPTOMS OF CEREBRAL PALSY

  • Delays in reaching motor skill milestones, such as rolling over, sitting up alone, or crawling
  • Delays in speech development and difficulty speaking
  • Abnormal muscle tone
  • A lack of muscle coordination
  • Tremors or involuntary movements
  • Difficulty in walking
  • Favoring one side of the body, such as reaching with one hand
  • Neurological problems, such as seizures, intellectual disabilities, and blindness.

CAUSES FOR CEREBRAL PALSY

  • A lack of oxygen to the brain during labor and delivery
  • Severe jaundice in the infant
  • Maternal infections, such as German measles and herpes simplex
  • Brain infections
  • Bleeding into the brain
  • Head injuries as a result of a car accident, a fall, or child abuse

MULTIPLE DISABILITIES

A person who has a combination of two or more disabilities are considered to have multiple disabilities.

The effect of multiple disabilities can be more than the combination of two individual disabilities.


LEARNING DISABILITIES

Learning disabilities are lifelong. Learning disabilities are due to genetic or neurobiological factors or injury that alters brain functioning in a manner that affects one or more processes related to learning.

  • It refers to a number of disorders which may affect the acquisition, organization, retention, understanding, or use of verbal or nonverbal information.
  • These disorders affect learning in individuals who otherwise demonstrate at least average abilities essential for thinking and/or reasoning.
  • Generally speaking, people with learning disabilities are of average or above-average intelligence.
  • There often appears to be a gap between the individual’s potential and actual achievement.

This is why learning disabilities are referred to as “hidden disabilities”, the person looks perfectly “normal” and seems to be a very bright and intelligent person, yet may be unable to demonstrate the skill level expected from someone of a similar age.


Kinds of Learning Disabilities

  1. Dyslexia
  2. Dysgraphia
  3. Dyscalculia
  4. Dyspraxia

Dyslexia: It is a specific learning disability that affects reading and related language-based processing skills.

Dysgraphia: Inability to write

Dyscalculia: A specific learning disability that affects a person’s ability to understand numbers and learn math facts.

Dyspraxia: Dyspraxia is a condition that can be acquired or developmental. Children with dyspraxia often have difficulty organizing their bodies to perform the tasks they want their bodies to do. They find motor planning challenging and struggle to perform fluid, smooth movements with finesse and control.


APPROACHES IN IDENTIFYING CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

  1. Cognitive approach
  2. Sensory approach
  3. Ability-based approach
  4. Society-based approach

MODELS OF DISABILITY

Models of Disability are tools for defining impairment and, ultimately, for providing a basis upon which government and society can devise strategies for meeting the needs of disabled people.

The various Models of Disability are:
  1. The medical model or individual model
  2. The social model of disability
  3. Human rights model
  4. Human rights model
  5. The disablement models

Policy Perspectives in India

Inclusive Education of Disabled Children (IEDC):

  • One of the major initiatives by the Government of India to promote “inclusive education” is the program of Inclusive Education of Disabled Children (IEDC).
  • In 1974, the Ministry of Welfare, Central Government of India, initiated the IEDC program to promote the integration of students with mild to moderate disabilities into regular schools.
  • The program was also designed to promote the retention of children with disabilities in the regular school system.

The Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995:

  • Persons with Disabilities Act, 1995 (Equal Opportunities, Full Participation, and Protection of Rights) paved the way for the enactment of the legislation to prevent any kind of discrimination against persons with disabilities.
  • This Act provides preventive and promotional aspects of rehabilitation like education, employment, and vocational training, reservation, research and manpower development, creation of a barrier-free environment, unemployment and allowance, a special insurance scheme for the disabled employees as well as the establishment of homes for persons with severe disabilities.

Rehabilitation Council of India:

  • Another important legislation which came into being in 1992 prior to the PWD Act was the establishment of the Rehabilitation Council of India.
  • The RCI was set- up in 1986 as a registered society and became a statutory body on June 22, 1993.

The National Trust Act, 1999:

The National Trust Act, 1999 (for the welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation, and Multiple Disabilities) resulted in the establishment of the National Trust to enable and empower persons with disability to live independently as fully as possible within and close proximity to the community to which they belong.


The Mental Health Act (1987):

  • The Mental Health Act (1987) clearly excluded persons with mental retardation from the definition of persons with mental illness.
  • It primarily dealt with the treatment and institutionalization of the mentally ill and the protection and management of their property.

National Policy:

In 2006, a National Policy for Persons with Disabilities was framed which recognizes that Persons with Disabilities are vulnerable human resources for the country and seeks to create an environment that provides them equal opportunities as for others.


Persons with Disabilities Act:

Section 26 of the Persons with Disabilities Act clearly mentions that the Indian State is to provide free education to children with disabilities for up to 18 years.


UNESCO:

According to UNESCO (2005), Inclusive Education is a process of addressing and responding to the diversity of needs of all learners through increasing participation in learning cultures and communities and reducing exclusion within and from education.

Further References:

Similar Posts

Post a Comment

Please Share your views and suggestions in the comment box

Previous Post Next Post