Peace Education

Peace Education

‘Peace is possible for life at all stages and it is up to man to choose his destiny or to suffer from the horrors of war. Today mankind is at the crossroad where he has to choose with courage, determination and imagination.’ – Federico Mayor


PEACE EDUCATION- Introduction, Concept, Meaning, Definition, Aims and Objectives, Historical Development, Scope, Approaches, Major Institutions and Organizations, Gandhiji's Contribution, Education for Peace, Teaching Methods for Peace Education, Culture of Peace, Pedagogy of Peace Education, Inner Peace,Peace Education Handmade Short Examination Notes, Book, Study Material PDF for B.Ed in English Free Download

AN INTRODUCTION TO PEACE EDUCATION

In today’s modern world, education has an important role in everyone’s life. It teaches individuals how to build a culture of peace and spread peace by forming good relations with the people.

But things were different in the past. People gave force on cognitive learning, as a result, in many areas of the world, society started suffering from the non-violent behavior of people.

Education is the difference maker and only it can bring the change in the human personality by changing the behavior and attitude of the people.

It also develops inner and outer peace among people and also teaches the qualities of moral values and non-violent behavior.


MEANING OF PEACE EDUCATION

The main objective of education is to change the behavior of the children or an individual.

The concept of peace education helps in developing social values, moral values, skills, behavior and most importantly to spread peace in the atmosphere.

  • Peace education declines the evil thinking of conflict, war, and violence.
  • It also realizes us, our fundamental duties, and fundamental rights.
  • Peace education has the only purpose of maintaining peace at the global level.

DEFINITION OF PEACE EDUCATION

There is a number of definitions on the subject of peace education given by various scholars and eminent educationists. Among them some important definitions are:

According to Albert Einstein “Peace is not merely the absence of war but the presence of justice, of law, of order – in short, of government.
According to Freire (2006) “Peace education is a mechanism for the transformation from a culture of violence to a culture of peace through a process of “conscientization”
“Peace Education is an attempt to respond to problems of conflict and violence of scale ranging from the global and national to the local and personal. It is about exploring ways of creating more just and sustainable futures - Laing. R.D.(1978)
According to John Dewey “Peace education is grounded in active citizenship, preparing learners for assiduous participation in a democracy, through problem – posing and problem–solving education, and a commitment to transformative action in our societies.”

SCOPE OF PEACE EDUCATION

  • Peace education is to develop the skills which are helpful and necessary in understanding tolerance and goodwill in our surroundings.
  • It is important for self-realizing an individual about his social responsibility.

AIMS OF PEACE EDUCATION

The aim of peace education is to establish peace in our culture and spread it to stop the conflicts globally. Some of the main aims and objectives are of Peace Education are:

  1. It develops the skill of understanding the global problems to form peace.
  2. Peace education can resolve the clouds of conflict.
  3. It makes the individual aware not to discriminate in gender, fundamental rights, fundamental duties.
  4. It is helpful in modifying the behavior of the people which is important for cultural diversity.
  5. Peace education has played an important role in forming a good understanding of the interdependence between people and societies.
  6. It develops good relations among the people to remove the conflicts and establish peace.
  7. It develops the will of tolerance, acceptance of others, and respect for difference.
  8. It makes people aware of their fundamental responsibilities and especially the rights and the responsibilities of children and parents
  9. It gives good knowledge and spread in the culture.
  10. It has proved helpful in making life joyful in living.

AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF TEACHING PEACE EDUCATION IN SCHOOLS

  1. To bring good changes for making the world a place of humanity.
  2. To make the students aware of to spread peace in a global society.
  3. To modify the behavior at the global level to remove the war situations.
  4. To promote positive human relations.

DIFFERENT APPROACHES OF PEACE EDUCATION

Here, are different approaches to peace that are perceived by the different eminent personalities. The five most important approaches to peace education are:

  1. Power politics: Peace through the coercive power
  2. World order: Peace through the power of the law
  3. Conflict resolution: Peace through the power of communication
  4. Nonviolence: Peace through will power
  5. Transformation: Peace through the power of life

ESTABLISHMENT OF PEACE EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

There are many organizations and educational institutions that are leading and spreading peace around the world. Some of the important from them are:

  1. United Nations
  2. Peace Corps
  3. Amnesty International
  4. Noble Peace Prize
  5. The Lion and The Lamb Peace Arts Center
  6. The Carter Centre
  7. International Peace Bureau
  8. Pathways to Peace
  9. Hague Appeal for Peace
  10. National Peace Foundation

1. United Nations

On 24 October 1945, the UN came into existence and with it, 51 other countries are agreed to it. Today almost every country is part of this alliance to spread peace globally and remove conflicts together.

Some of The Major Purposes Of UN Are:

  • To develop friendly relations at the international level.
  • To maintain peace globally.

2. Peace Corps

Peace Corps is an organization served by the volunteers who helped in solving the important challenges that face communities in the world. The mission of the Peace Corps is to help and promote a better understanding of the Americans on the part of people served.


3. Amnesty International

It was launched in 1961, by British lawyer Peter Beneson, its main motive was to protect human rights, like

  • Opposing torture and terror with human rights
  • Stopping violence against women.

4. Noble Peace Prize

This prize is generally given to those personalities who have done something peaceful in their lives like Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa, etc.


5. The Lion and The Lamb Peace Arts Center

It was established in 1987. Its main purpose was to spread peace education for the children through art and literature.


6. The Carter Centre

The main purpose of the carter Centre is to relieve the suffering by spreading peace and health all around the world.


7. International Peace Bureau (IPB)

The main objective of IPB is to establish peace by removing the situations.


8. Pathways to Peace (PTP)

It is an international organization.

Its main objective is:

  • To make peace a practical reality through local and global projects.
  • To expand communication and build cooperation among the existing organizations.

9. Hague Appeal for Peace

It is an international level of organizations. The main motive of it is to develop capacities in teachers and learners to face the challenges worldwide.


10. National Peace Foundation (NPF)

The foundation year of NPF was 1975. Its main work is to empower citizens on a community level.


PACIFISM AND EDUCATION

The word pacifism has come out from the word “Pacific” which means “Peace Making”.

Pacifist is a person who believes in establishing peace and opposes the war. A pacifist always has a theory of not killing other people.

The thoughts and ideas of pacifism should be integrated with the education curriculum because it is important and helpful in improving the behavior of the people and it is also helpful in spreading peace by removing war situations.


HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PEACE EDUCATION

The violent atmosphere of the past has changed throughout history. It shows the importance of peace education and this is the only way to establish a peaceful environment in surroundings.

The output of the First World War gave birth to peace education and the international support for peace education integrated it into our education system.

The impact of the Second World War also brought a change in our education system. It started planning for the general changes in the education system. All the tragedies in our history proved helpful in the development of peace education.


List of Some important institutions and organizations that have been evolved throughout history to promote and secure peace education:

  • United Nation (UN)
  • United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
  • United Nation Development Program (UNDP)
  • United Nation Environment Program (UNEP)
  • United Nation Human Rights Council (UNHRC)
  • International Committee of Red Cross and NGO

PEACE EDUCATION IN INDIA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

To establish peace, India has a long period of history where the Upanishads, Purans, Vedas show the path of peace. Later many great personalities came who promoted peace.

“Swami Vivekananda,” tells that the real meaning of education is to develop the inner peace.

He preached tolerance in education and religion which is essentially head to peace. “Mahatma Gandhi”, “Ravinder Nath Tagore” also got the attention of the world by their peaceful acts.


GANDHIJI’S CONTRIBUTION OF PEACE MOVEMENT

Nonviolence and speaking of truth were the weapons of Mahatma Gandhi. He believed in “Ahimsa” (non-violence).

Gandhiji did not write on peace education in any specific way, but his principles of nonviolence and speaking truth are undoubtedly important in the study of peace and peace education.

He gave his whole life to the principle of “Ahimsa” and fought till his last breath.


EDUCATION FOR PEACE

Concept and Meaning of Education Peace

The concept of education of peace means the subject which includes the planning of developing the skill of a person, group, or student.

Basically, this concept works in an education system i.e. school where the major behavioral changes take place in the children and also teach them peace education which is helpful for maintaining the environment of peace by the future generation.

Education of peace modifies the social behavior of the children and it will help in keeping good relations in a society and gradually at the global level.


Curriculum Development of Education of Peace

The “curriculum” is defined as a broader term. The broader definition comes out with more learning areas i.e. values, behaviors, education for peace, etc.

The aim of education of peace is to make the children aware of peaceful social relations by changing their behavior and help them in learning the importance of education peace.

Curriculum development occurs when the subject of “education peace” added in the education system as an important one. It helps the students in learning the importance of a peaceful environment and also develops their knowledge, skill, and how to oppose violence.


Integrating Peace Education in The Curriculum

Integrating peace education into the curriculum establishes a strong foundation for the students. It helps in growing with a peaceful mind and also helps in learning how to make peace relations to society.

The growth of a student with the subject of peace education helps in moving his life in that direction where the importance of peace establishment plays an important role.


TEACHING METHODS FOR PEACE EDUCATION

In the process of integrating peace education, how to teach is more important than what to teach. There are some special teaching methods that can be used for teaching peace education.

  • Cooperative Learning
  • Group Discussion
  • Peer Teaching
  • Brain Storming
  • Role Play
  • Energizers
  • Story Telling
  • Service Learning
  • Experiential Teaching
  • Inquiry-Based Learning and Teaching
  • Dialogues

Cooperative Learning

It is a successful teaching strategy in which groups are divided into different levels of students. This helps in improving the understanding level of the students and the outcomes will be consistent with the aim of peace education.


Group Discussion

In the group discussion, students of a particular class can be divided into different groups to discuss the subject of peace education like what is peace, what is the importance of it.


Peer Teaching

In this category of teaching students are divided into groups for sharing their views on a particular topic. It develops the skill of communication, awareness, social responsibility, etc.


Brain Storming

In this method, the students identify the given problem, then after they will work on it, finally they will make a map of the problem for understanding and they explore the problem from depth.


Role Play

In his method, the students usually play the role of great personalities like Mahatma Gandhi, Rabindranath Tagore, Luther king. These role-play help the students knowing the fact about the great people of the world and also arise curiosity among them, to be like them.


Energizers

At school time, with continuous studying, students can become bored, so to make them energetic throughout the day, we can give them a period of break. In that period, they can watch the news, magazines regarding peace education.


Story Telling

Storytelling plays an important role in motivating the students about peace education. Teachers can motivate them by telling the stories of great personalities like Mahatma Gandhi, Luther King, etc.


Service Learning

It is a type of strategy that involves important community service with instructions. Providing service experience to students would help them to understand diversity and mutual respect among all individuals. Service-learning also helps in changing the behavior of the individual.


Experiential Teaching

It is a model that promotes learning by doing. During this type of learning, students are taught how to find out the answer to problems. During experiential learning the interaction of teacher and student occurs, it helps in increasing curiosity and intelligence.


Inquiry-Based Learning and Teaching

In this type of teaching, the teacher asks some questions to the students and makes them answer the questions. It increases the learning skill, sharing of personal knowledge and experiences. This method of teaching helps in increasing the communicational skills.


Dialogues

It is the highest form of communication. It creates a shared space where students can come together through discussion. Mind Opening and tolerance power will enhance through the dialogue method.


CULTURE OF PEACE

In the past, there was no culture of peace. The struggle for human rights and justice has often been violent.

The environment of violence gave birth to the culture of war, the dominance of men, mobilized to destroy the enemy. Millions of people were suffered from this culture of war. But now it is time, for us to build a culture of peace.

A culture of peace is linked to the struggle without violence. Our great freedom fighters like Mahatma Gandhi, Luther King, etc., have proved to us the power of non-violence and peace. We must create an environment of a culture of peace where non-violence and peace are two important pillars of it.

“According to UN resolution 1998”, the culture of peace is an initiative to preventing violence and violent conflicts, and for social development, saving of human rights, equality in men and women, tolerance power etc. The culture of peace can only be possible with education oriented towards inner peace.

INNER PEACE

The term inner peace means peace of mind. Its main purpose is to make us strong from the inside.

Inner peace refers to the state of facing things like

  • How you keep yourself calm in stress?
  • How you see abnormal things?
  • How you react to them?

Many people believe meditation, yoga, spiritual practices are the path to getting inner peace.


PEDAGOGY OF EDUCATION OF PEACE

Pedagogy of education of peace is a broad concept. It includes multiple methods and techniques for making learning more effective and interesting. For teaching peace education, the following approaches should be considered by the teacher

  • Inquiry Method
  • Value Clarification
  • Jurisprudential Model of Teaching
  • Role-Playing
  • Dramatics
  • Literacy Activities Yoga and Meditation
  • Sports
  • Games
  • Counseling
  • Teacher Education for Peace
  • Teacher as A Role Model

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