Health Physical And Yoga Education | Health And Physical Education

Health Physical And Yoga Education | Health And Physical Education


HEALTH PHYSICAL AND YOGA EDUCATION subject B.Ed, b ed, bed, b-ed, 1st, 2nd,3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth semester, CLASS 11, CLASS 12, year student teachers teaching notes, study material, pdf, ppt,book,exam texbook,ebook handmade last minute examination passing marks short and easy to understand notes in English Medium download free

PHYSICAL EDUCATION

The word physical education comprises of two words

  1. Physical and
  2. Education

The two words combined together stands for the systematic instructions or training related to physical activities or program of activities necessary for the development and maintenance of the human body.

‘Physical Education is education through physical activities to the development of the total personality of the child and its fulfillment and perfection in body mind and spirit.’- J.P.Thomas

Aims of Physical Education

  1. Physical development
  2. Mental balance
  3. Emotional adjustment
  4. Manual training
  5. Social adaptability

Objectives of Physical Education

  1. Development of Organic Fitness
  2. Development of Mental health
  3. Social Development
  4. Development of Neuromuscular co-ordination
  5. Development of Desirable habits
  6. Development of Personality
  7. Providing for Mental Hygiene
  8. Development of Functional Knowledge
  9. Development of qualities of a good citizenship

Scope of Physical Education

  • Corrective Exercises
  • Games and Sports
  • Rhythmics
  • Self-defense activities
  • Recreational activities
  • Yogic activities

Importance of Physical Education

  1. Develops the alertness of mind
  2. Provides knowledge about health and hazards diseases
  3. Leisure time can be utilized properly
  4. The human body can be developed in good proportion
  5. Helps in developing and maintaining good relations among humans’ beings
  6. Helps in creating discipline
  7. Enhance the power of tolerance
  8. Development of the personality
  9. Character building

PHYSICAL FITNESS

Physical fitness refers to the organic capacity of the individual to perform the normal task of daily living without undue tiredness or fatigue having reserves of strength and energy available to meet satisfactory and emergency demands suddenly placed upon him”.- Nixon

Components of Physical Fitness

  1. Endurance
  2. Strength
  3. Speed
  4. Flexibility

Benefits of Physical Fitness

  • Improved health
  • Increased efficiency of the heart and lungs
  • Reduced cholesterol levels
  • Increased muscle strength
  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Weight loss
  • Improved quality of sleep
  • Increased mental sharpness

METHODS OF TEACHING PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES

Good teachers know what to teach, how to teach, and understand the need for their wards.

Teaching methods can be classified into two areas:

  • Teacher-Centered Methods
  • Student-Centered Methods

The following are a few methods of the teaching of physical education:

  1. Command Method
  2. Lecture Method
  3. Demonstration Method
  4. Task/Project Method
  5. Reciprocal Method
  6. Circuit Method
  7. Discussion Method
  8. Individual Programme Method
  9. Guided Discovery Method
  10. Problem-solving Method
  11. Felt- Need Method
  12. Co-Operative Method
  13. Inductive Method
  14. Deductive Method
  15. Whole Method
  16. Part Method
  17. Part-Whole method
  18. Whole-Part-Whole Method

PARTS OF GENERAL LESSON OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

The general lesson of physical education is divided into the following parts:

  • Assembly & roll call
  • Warming up exercises
  • Formal activities
  • Special activities
  • Recreative activities
  • Assembly & dismissal

HEALTH EDUCATION

Health Education is concerned with promoting health as well as reducing behavior induced diseases. In other words, health education is concerned with establishing or inducing changes in personal and group attitudes and behavior that promote healthier living.

Health education is the sum of experiences, which favorably influence habits attitudes, and knowledge relating to the individual community and social health. - Thomas wood

Aims of Health Education

  • To provide information about health
  • To maintain norms of good health
  • To take precautionary and preventive measures against communicable diseases
  • To develop and promote mental and emotional health
  • To develop a sense of civic responsibility.

Objectives of Health Education

  1. To enable the students to develop a scientific point of view of health with reference to traditional and the modern concept of health.
  2. To enable the students to identify health problems and understand their own role on health and to medical agencies in meeting those problems
  3. To enable the students to gain sufficient knowledge of first aid
  4. To provide desirable knowledge about marriage sex and family planning to the students
  5. To help students to understand the importance of Physical training sports, games, yogic exercises as well as their relationship with the health education program.
  6. The emphasize students on the bad effects of smoking and taking alcohol etc

“The first wealth is health.” – Emerson

Importance of Health Education

  1. Health education provides information to the students and the teachers about the function of the body the rule of health and hygiene and precautionary measures for keeping off diseases.
  2. Health education helps in discovering the physical defects of children and discovering various types of abnormalities of children
  3. Health education develops health habits like the need for fresh air, hygienic feeding, and various classroom habits
  4. Health education develops better human relations between the school-home community
  5. Health education provides knowledge regarding the prevention and control of various diseases

HEALTH INSTRUCTION

Health instruction is the organization of learning experience directed towards the development of favorable health knowledge attitude and practice. – D. K. Barle

Aim

The aim of health instruction is to acquaint pupils about the functioning of the various organs of the body the rules of health and hygiene and methods for curing diseases.

Methods of imparting health instructions

  • Healthful Environment of the institution
  • Systematic Health Instructions
  • Incidental Teaching
  • Lectures on health by experts
  • Printed Material
  • Films and Film Strips
  • School broadcast and radio talks
  • Educational field trips
  • Health Weeks
  • Health Club
  • Health Scrap Books

CAUSES AND PREVENTION OF DISEASES

The prime aim of life is to have a healthy life. Due to modernization, the lifestyle gets affected and paves ways for unhealthy lifestyles.

Identifying the causes of lifestyle diseases is critical.

Some Major Causes of Diseases:

  1. Dehydration
  2. Malnutrition
  3. Inflammation
  4. Fatigue
  5. Poor physical fitness

Prevention

  • Regular health screaming
  • The right choice of food
  • Cutting down sugar intake
  • Limiting the intake of high-fat foods
  • Proper rest and relaxation
  • Avoid alcohol intake

COMMUNICABLE DISEASE

Diseases that can be passed or transmitted from one person to another are called- infectious or contagious diseases.

Infectious disease is a “disease of man resulting from an infection”.

Contagious disease is “one that is transmitted through direct contact”.

A disease of infectious nature can be transmitted from one person to another or from a reservoir to a susceptible host, directly (or) indirectly is called a communicable disease.

The infectious agents may be a virus, bacteria, protozoa, fungi, rickets, etc. this disease may be directly or indirectly transmitted from man to man, animal to animal, from the environment like through air, dust, soil water, food, insects, etc. to man and to the animal.

Some Communicable Diseases are:

  • Airborne Diseases-Tuberculosis, whooping cough, smallpox
  • Water and foodborne diseases-Typhoid, Cholera, Dysentery, diarrhea
  • Through Direct contact-sexual disease AIDS
  • Through insects- Malaria

FIRST AID

First aid is the immediate treatment given to the victim of the accident or sudden illness before medical help is obtained.


Aims of First Aid:

  • To preserve life
  • To promote recovery and
  • To prevent worsening of the causality’s conditions until the victim receives the services of a doctor or arrangement transportation to the hospital

Scope of First Aid:

  • The First aider should examine the causality to know the details of injuries and their nature. This is known as diagnosis
  • The diagnosis will give him the idea of the treatment to be given until the doctor takes charge
  • The next step is to send the causality to his house or to be hospitalized as the case may be in a suitable atmosphere.

Qualities of the first aider

  • Prompt and quick
  • Calm and controlled
  • Wise and intelligent
  • Resourceful

First Aid Box

The first aid box should contain the following equipment and medicines to enable the first aider to render effective timely appropriate aid.

First aid Equipment

  1. Clean cotton wool
  2. Needle
  3. Bandages
  4. Tweezers
  5. Safety pin
  6. Measuring tape
  7. Thermometer
  8. Scissors
  9. Camel hairbrush
  10. Pads of various sizes
  11. Tourniquet
  12. Adhesive dressings
  13. Spoon
  14. Graduated glass

YOGA

Definition of Yoga:

“Checking the impulses of mind is yoga” -Patanjali

“Yoga is attaining the pose”-Ved Vyas

“Yoga is a skill in actions.”-Lord Krishna

“The meeting of a human being with God is Yoga.” -Nukeshwar Majumdar

Aims and objectives of Yoga

The main objectives of the Yogic practices are to make one free from

  • Diseases
  • Ignorance
  • Egoism
  • Miseries the Affiliations of Old Age
  • Fear of Death Etc.

EIGHT LIMBS OF YOGA

  1. Yama (moral code)
  2. Niyama (Personal Disciplines)
  3. Asana (Postures)
  4. Pranayama (Breathing)
  5. Pratyahara (Withdrawal of senses)
  6. Dharana (Concentration on the object)
  7. Dhyan (Meditation)
  8. Samadhi (Salvation)

Importance/ Advantages of yoga

  • Yoga is easy to perform.
  • Yoga does not require equipment and implements.
  • Yoga practices can be performed and practiced by everyone.
  • All sorts of tension and fatigue are removed.
  • Strength and energy are recovered and regained.
  • It refreshes the mind and body.
  • Ladies become beautiful charming in perfect shape and size fully developed in all their organs fit and attractive with elegant gait.
  • Yoga helps in the growth and development of the intelligence of a person.
  • Yoga makes the man and woman self-controlled
  • Yoga controls and regulates the respiration and respiratory systems as a whole.
  • It provides strength to the heart and lungs.
  • It purifies and regulates the blood in the body.
  • The concentration of the mind is improved.
  • Will becomes strong and stable.
  • Yoga destroys the causes of diseases.
  • It protects and safeguards the person against diseases.
  • The eyesight is improved considerably.

ASANAS

Asana is one of the most ancient yogic practices. It is also called as the other practices of yoga, namely Pranayama, Kriyas, Meditation, Bandhas, and Mudras

Yogasanas are specialized postures of the body often imitating many of the animal postures.

There are Large numbers of Asanas exist. Some of them are:

A. Sitting Posture Asans

  • Padmasana
  • Swastik Asana
  • Vajrasana
  • Paschimottunasana
  • Ardhachakrasana
  • Garbhasana
  • Uttanamandukasana
  • Bhadvasana
  • Kapalabhati
  • Nadi Shuddi Pranayama
  • Bhramri Pranayama
  • Sheetali

B. Lying Posture

  • Powanamutasana
  • Sarvangasana
  • Halasana
  • Matsyasana
  • Mayurasana
  • Shalabhasana
  • Dhanuvasana
  • Suptavajrasana
  • Kurmasana
  • Makavasana

C. Standing Posture Asans

  • Tadasana
  • Urdhavahastottanasana
  • Padhastasana
  • Katichakrasana

EXERCISE

Exercise is the key to sound health. The activity of exerting your muscles in various ways to keep fit.


Need and Importance of Physical Exercise

  1. Exercise provides an adequate quantity of oxygen.
  2. Enables different organs of the human body to function properly.
  3. Exercise promotes the circulation of blood to all parts of the body.
  4. Exercise develops muscular systems in the body.
  5. Toxic products are eliminated from the bloodstream.
  6. Exercise stimulates the nervous system
  7. Exercise helps in the proper functioning of the organs in the human body.
  8. Exercise brings joy to a man.

Types of Exercise

Two major types of exercises are:

  1. Aerobic
  2. Anaerobic

Aerobic Exercise

  • The literal meaning of aerobics is oxygen.
  • Hence, aerobic exercise can be defined as the one which involves the use of oxygen to produce energy.
  • Aerobic activities are rhythmical exercise having large muscle groups involvement continuously in a sequential manner.
  • Physical activities such as jogging, brisk walking, rowing, cycling, hiking, or playing tennis, focus on increasing cardiovascular endurance skiting and swimming are aerobic exercises.

Anaerobic Exercises

Anaerobic exercises make the body to provide energy without using oxygen.

High-intensity workouts such as jumping, weight lifting, sprinting, short-term muscle strength exercises are categorized as anaerobic exercises.


FOOD

Food is a substance that produces heat and energy in the body and repairs tissues. It also contains some rough-age which adds quantity or bulk to our diet.

  • Food builds up new tissues.
  • Food repairs the worn-out tissues
  • Food produces heat and energy in our body
  • Food supplies material for growth and nourishment to all the parts of the body
  • Food helps in the production of compounds that regulate body processes.
  • In short, food is very important in life.

Classification of Food

Food serves to nourish, to build up tissues, and to supply energy to the body. Food may be classified in the following ways;

1. According to the source

  • Food obtained from plant sources
  • Food obtained from animal sources

2. According to the chemical composition

  • Protein
  • Carbohydrate
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

3. According to the main function

  • Bodybuilding foods
  • Energy giving foods
  • Protective foods

4. According to the nutritive value

  • Cereals
  • Pulses
  • Vegetables
  • Nuts and oilseeds
  • Fruits
  • Animal foods
  • Sugar and jaggery
  • Condiments and spices

Main Constituents of food

  • Protein
  • Carbohydrate
  • Fats
  • Vitamins
  • Minerals

Nutrition and Mal Nutrition

Nutrition: Nutrition is the science deals with foods and their uses by the body. Good nutrition stands for the supply of essential nutrients in adequate quantities.

Malnutrition: The weak condition of the body when it does not complete and balanced food at the proper time is called malnutrition.


Balanced Diet

A balanced diet is a food that contains a sufficient quantity of carbohydrates, proteins, fats vitamins, and minerals which proves enough energy and maintains good health.

A balanced diet prevents diseases from arising out of main nutrition.


Characteristics of a Balanced Diet

  • The food articles containing proteins and minerals are contained in the diet in adequate amount.
  • The materials providing energy are present in the diet in an adequate amount
  • Presence of preventive nutrients in necessary in a balanced diet
  • This varies with the age of each individual
  • This varies according to the sex of each individual
  • This varies according to the occupation of each individual
Further References:

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