Educational Management

Educational Management

Educational Management

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Brief History and Origin of Educational Management

  • The concept of educational management as a field of study may be traced back to the 1880s with the publication of the ‘Practical Handbook of School Management by Teachers’ authored by Harding. (1872).
  • The development of educational management as a field of study began in the USA in the early part of the 20th century.
  • In the UK, the concept of educational management found its place in education in the 1960s (Kochhar, 2011).

Meaning of Educational Management

Educational management is a field of study and practice with the operation of educational organizations. It is the management of educational institutions to foster teaching and learning.

There is no universally accepted definition of educational management. However, Education management can be viewed as the theory and practices of organization and administration of existing educational establishments and systems.

Educational management is the process of planning, organizing, directing, controlling of activities of institutions by utilizing human, finance, and materials resources so as to effectively and efficiently accomplish the function of teaching and learning, extension work, and research.

Definition of Educational Management

G.Terry Page and J.B.Thomas have written in the International Dictionary of Education (1978): They say that Educational Management is the “Theory and practice of the organization and administration of existing establishments and systems”.
Paul Monroe: (1913), states: “School management, as a body of educational doctrine, comprises a number of principles and precepts relating primarily to the technique of classroom procedure, and derived largely from the practice of successful teachers.
George R. Terry states, "Educational management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determined and accomplish the stated objectives by the use of human beings and other resources."

Nature and Scope of Educational Management

The National Policies on Education seek to bring about social, economic, and cultural development in society by focusing on human resource development through education.

Education, therefore, must have more relevant curricula, be dynamic, and empower students to bring about desirable social changes while preserving the desirable aspects of our existing culture.

The national developmental goals require the professional management of education to bring about the effective and efficient functioning of educational institutions.

The scope of Educational Management is wide and includes the 
  • History and theories of management science, 
  • Roles and responsibilities of an educational manager along with the requisite managerial skills.
Educational Management focuses on:
  1. The studies of theories of management science which define and describe the roles and responsibilities of the educational manager and the development of managerial skills.
  2. The studies of educational planning at macro levels, its goals, principles, approaches, and processes and on institutional planning and educational administration at the micro-level.
  3. Decision making
  4. Problem-solving
  5. Communication
  6. Information management, and effective team building.
  7. Planning of curricular and co-curricular activities, curriculum and academic calendar
  8. Maintenance of school records
  9. Evaluation of students achievement
  10. Effective allocation of financial resources and
  11. The planning of the budgets of institutions.

Aims and Objectives of Educational Management

Educational Management aims at:
  1. Achieving an institution’s objectives
  2. Improving the processes of planning
  3. Organizing and implementing within the institution
  4. Creating, enhancing, and maintaining a positive public image of the institution.
  5. Optimal utilization of human resources (administrators, non-teaching staff, teaching staff, and students)
  6. Enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of infrastructure
  7. Enabling job satisfaction
  8. Creating and maintaining a congenial and cohesive atmosphere
  9. Managing interpersonal conflicts and stress.

Principles of Educational Management

Every task of management is guided by certain principles. Educational management follows certain fundamental principles. Some of them are pointed out here.
  • Principle of hierarchy
  • Principle of unity and integrity
  • Principle of the span of control
  • Principle of the division of work based on the expertise of individual
  • Principle of democracy and human values
  • Principle of cost-effective and sustainability

Process of Educational Management

educational management process, educational process steps
  1. Planning
  2. Execution
  3. Staffing
  4. Control
  5. Supervision
  6. Monitoring
  7. Evaluation
  8. Feedback

Planning:

Planning is the process of setting objectives and determining the actions in order to achieve them. Planning is anticipatory in nature and sets priorities. It is proactive rather than passive.

Planning asks the following questions: What? When? Where? By whom? How? while following a series of steps:
  1. Defining Objectives (setting objectives or goals)
  2. Determining the current status with respect to the objectives (being aware of opportunities)
  3. Determining planning premises (analyzing the situation for external factors and forecasting future trends; generation of future scenarios)
  4. Identifying alternative (best alternative to accomplish the objectives)
  5. Choosing an alternative (selecting the course of action to be pursued)
  6. Formulating support plans (arranging for human and material resources)
  7. Implementing the plan (action stage which also involves evaluation)

Execution:

Execution is the process in which the management puts the plans into action. This includes staffing, controlling, coordinating, supervision, monitoring, evaluation, and reporting, and documentation.

Staffing:

According to objectives and planning, the required staff is given an appointment. Activities are assigned to different people who are specialists in that area, for specialization improves efficiency.

Process of Staffing:
  1. Orientation towards goals: It harmonizes the individual goals of employees with the overall goals of the institution.
  2. Composition of individuals and groups: Individuals are grouped into departments and their work is coordinated and directed towards organizational goals.
  3. Differentiated functions: The entire work is divided and assigned to individuals so that the organization’s objectives are achieved.

Controlling:

Controlling involves measuring and monitoring performance in accordance with plans and taking corrective action when required. It establishes performance standards based on the objectives, measures, and reports actual performance, compares the two, and takes corrective or preventive action as necessary.

Thus controlling indicates the quantum of goals achieved, the extent of deviation from actual plans, generates accurate information, and requisite feedback. Thus controlling focuses upon the difference between the planned and actual performance.

Controlling is especially concerned with the areas of
  1. Institutional Budget (finance in terms of income and expenditure)
  2. Institutional Supplies (stationery and material equipment)
  3. Library (maintenance and up-gradation)
  4. Teaching-learning Process
  5. Accounts and School Records and Discipline (staff and students)

Supervision and Monitoring:


It is the art or process of influencing people such that they willingly strive to achieve group goals. 
  • It focuses on the development of willingness to work with zeal and confidence, 
  • provides adequate guidelines to complete the task, and 
  • motivates individuals to achieve goals in a coordinated manner. 
  • It also focuses on exercising leadership while determining responsibility and accountability.

Evaluation and Feedback:

It is the process of measuring and assessing the achievement of objectives while providing an insight into strengths and weaknesses and planning for future endeavors.

Evaluation helps determine the effectiveness of plans for both administrators and other stakeholders like teachers, staff, students, and parents, as also the extended community.

It seeks to document the objectives that have been met and to provide information to all concerned stakeholders regarding achievement, obstacles, and corrective action or improvements.

Thus, the evaluation focuses upon
  • Process (how is the plan being carried out), 
  • Outcome (achievement of objectives), and 
  • Impact (effect of the plans initiated).

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