Contemporary India and Education Book

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1.1 Introduction
1.2 Objectives
1.3 Meaning of Education
1.4 Definitions of Education
1.5 Formal Education
1.6 Non – formal Education
1.7 Informal Education
1.7.1 The Transition from Formal to Non-Formal Education
1.7.2 Why is Non-Formal Education Important?
1.7.3 Formal versus Non-Formal Education
1.7.4 The Creation of Non-Formal Models
1.7.5 Perspectives of Non-Formal Education
1.8 Various level of Education
1.8.1. Objectives
1.8.2. Pre – Primary Education
1.8.3. Primary Education
1.8.4. Secondary and Higher Secondary Education
1.9 Aims of education in contemporary Indian Society
1.10 Determinants of Aims of Education


Alexander, R. (2000) Culture and Pedagogy. International comparisons in primary
education, Oxford: Blackwell.
D. Butts, “Distance Learning and Broadcasting”, in “Distance Learning and
Evaluation” ed. F. Percival and H. Ellington (Kogan Page, London, 1981) p. 26
B. Holmberg, “Distance Study in Educational Theory and Practice”, in
“Educational Technology Twenty Years On”, ed. G.T. Page and O. A. Whitlock
(Kogan Page, London, 1979) p.72
B. Holmberg, “Status and Trends of Distance Education” (Kogan Page London,
1981) p. 97- 98.
Fordham, P. E. (1993) ‘Informal, non-formal and formal education programs’ in
YMCA George Williams College ICE301 Lifelong Learning Unit 2, London: YMCA
George Williams College.
Rubenson, K.(1982) Interaction Between Formal and Non-Formal Education Paris, Paper
for Conference of the International Council for Adult Education.
UNESCO (1972) Learning toBe (prepared by Faure, E. et al), Paris: UNESCO.


2.1 Introduction
2.2 Objectives
2.3 Cultural Heritage
2.4 Diversity in Indian Society
2.5 Inequality and Marginalization
2.6 Schisms in terms of Caste, Religion, Language, Region and their demands on Education
2.7 Forms and Bases of Social Stratification
2.8 Impact of Social Stratification on Education and Vice versa
2.9 Culture and Education
2.10 Meaning and definitions of Culture
2.11 Characteristics of Culture
2.12 Dimensions of Culture
2.13 Cultural Lag
2.14 Cultural pluralism
2.15 Role of Education in Preservation, Transmission and Promotion of Culture


1. Pantoja, Blourock, and Bowman, Badges and Indicia of Slavery: Cultural Pluralism
Redefined (Lincoln, Nebraska: Study Commission on Undergraduate Education and the
Education of Teachers, 1975) PP. 150-199.
2. Horace M. Kallen, Culture, and Democracy in the United States (New York: Moni and
Liveright, 1929), as quoted by Milton M. Gordon, Assimilation in American Life (New
York: Oxford University Press, 1964), PP. 142-143.
3. Peggy R. Sanday, "The Application of the Concept of Cultural Pluralism To the United
States Domestic Social Policy" (revised version of a paper presented at the 69th Annual
Meeting of the American Anthropological Association, San Diego, California, November,
4. "The Concept of Cultural-Socio-Economic Pluralism" (Recommended Policy Statement/Study
Commission on Undergraduate Education and the Education of Teachers, (Lincoln,
Nebraska: University of Nebraska, 1972)
5. Bruce Gaarder, "Cultural Pluralism and the United States Office of Education," December,
6. Frank Bonilla, "Cultural Pluralism and the University: The Case of Puerto Rican Studies"
(a paper presented at the Seminar on Cultural Pluralism, sponsored by Columbia University
and the City College of New York, April 1972).
7. William R. Hazard and Madelon Stent, "Cultural Pluralism and Schooling: Some
Preliminary Observations," Cultural Pluralism in Education: A Mandate for Change, eds.
Madelon Stent, William R. Hazard and Harry N. Rivlin (New York: Appleton-Century-
Crofts, 1973), P. 13.
8. Peggy R. Sanday, "The Application of the Concept of Cultural Pluralism to the United States"
Domestic Social Policy" (revised version of a paper presented at the 69th Annual Meeting
of the American Anthropological Association, San Diego, California, November 1970).


3.1 Introduction
3.2 Objectives
3.3 The Concepts of Social Change
3.3.1 Definitions of social Change
3.3.2 Characteristics of Social Change:
3.4 Technology Factors of Social Change
3.4.1 Sources of Technological Change
3.4.2 Effects of Technology
3.4.3 Technology and Different Process
3.4.4 Technology and Social Life
3.4.5Technology and Economic Life
3.5 Role of Education in the process of Social Change
3.5.1 Education as a Necessary condition of Social Change
3.5.2 Education as an Outcome of Social Change
3.5.3 Education as an Instrument of Social Change
3.6 Agencies of Socialization
3.6.1 Ultra Committed Change – Makers
3.6.2 Faith – Inspired Givers
3.6.3 Socially Conscious Consumers
3.6.4 Purposeful Participants
3.6.5 Casual Contributors
3.6.6 Social Change Spectators
3.7 Factors influencing the Learner
3.7.1 Intellectual Factor
3.7.2 Learning factors
3.7.3 Physical Factors
3.7.4 Mental Factors
3.7.5 Emotional and Social Factors
3.7.6 Teacher’s Personality
3.7.7 Environmental Factors
3.8 Socio-Cultural Factors
3.8.1 Family
3.8.2 School Environment
3.8.3 Community
3.8.4 Peer Group
3.9 Political: Policies and Provisions
3.10 Socio-Economic
3.10.1 Poverty
3.10.2 Gender
3.10.3 Religion
3.10.4 Caste and Class
3.11 Psycho-Social
3.11.1 Parents
3.11.2 Teachers
3.11.3 Classroom Climate
3.11.4 School
3.11.5 Ethnicity


Dewey, J. (2001). Education and social change. In F. Schultz (Ed.), SOURCES: Notable
selections in education (3 rd ed.) (pp. 333 341). New York: McGraw Hill Dushkin.
Johnson, J. A., Musial, D., Hall, G. E., Gollnick D. M., & Dupuis, V. L. (2008).
Foundations of American education: Perspectives on education in a changing world (14
th ed.). Boston: Pearson Educational 14th Dushkin. Gollnick,
Parsons, Talcott (1952); Social System, Free Press USA
Robert J Stal Cub (1968) Sociology and Education, Charles E.Merril Pub.Co.Columbus,


4.1 Introduction
4.2 Objectives
4.3 Gandhiji’s Basic Education
4.3.1 Concept of education
4.3.2 Gandhiji’s Conception of Knowledge
4.3.3 Method of Instruction and Evaluation
4.4 Tagore’s Basic Education
4.4.1 Tagore’s Conception of Knowledge
4.4.2 Values of Education
4.4.3 Freedom and Discipline
4.4.4 Method of Instruction and Evaluation
4.5 John Dewey’s Basic Education
4.5.1 Dewey’s Concept of Knowledge
4.5.2 Values of Education
4.5.3 Method of Instruction and Evaluation
4.6 Rousseau’s Basic Education
4.6.1 Rousseau’s Concept of Knowledge
4.6.2 Method of Instruction and Evaluation
4.7 J.Krishnamoorthy’s Basic Education
4.7.1 Concept of Knowledge and freedom in Learning
4.8 Sri Aurobindo's Basic Education
4.8.1 Sri Aurobindo's Concept of Knowledge
4.8.2 Method of Instruction and Evaluation

Eby, Frederick. The Development of Modern Education. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Prentice -
Hall of India Pvt. Ltd., 1964.
Gandhi M.K. Basic Education P.14
Dr. InterDev Singh Nandra, Teacher in Emerging Indian Society, Tondon Publication
Book Market Ludhiana P. 175 Retrieved from Website.
Prasad, Devi., Rabindranath Tagore, Philosophy of education and Painting, p.1.
Rabindranath Tagore, Education in the Ashram, in Shiksha, p.311.
Sharma, Ram Nath. Textbook of Educational Philosophy. New Delhi: Kanishka
Publishers Distributors, 2000.


5.1. Introduction
5.2. Objectives
5.3. Equalization of Educational Opportunities - SC/ST, OBC, Women, Handicapped and
Religious Minorities.
5.4. Population and Poverty
5.5. Illiteracy - Measures adopted for Eradicating Illiteracy
5.6. Child Labour - Causes for Child Labour - Government Measures of Child Labour
5.7. Transit Schools
5.8. Unemployment and Under-employment
5.9. Privatization in Education


1. Encyclopedia for Education (2005) Enculturation. New York: Macmillan Company and the
free Press 171-172.
2. Harris, I. & Synott, J. (2002). Peace education for a new century. Social Adventure, 21(1) 3-6.
3. Jamies, P. (2008) Peace Education: Exploring Ethical and philosophical foundation
Charlotte: Information Age Publishing ISBN 978-159311-889-1
4. Peace Education. (n.d.). Retrieved on 15th April 2008.
5. "How to Cross the Poverty Line? In Urban Areas, Earn Rs 455 a Month: Govt," The Times
of India, Nov. 14, 2008.
6. R. Ramakumar"The Unsettled Debate on Indian Poverty," The Hindu, Jan. 2, 2010.
7. MoLE, Policy, and Programme for the Rehabilitation of Working Children & Manual for the
Implementation of National Child Labour Projects, Ministry of Labour and Employment,
Government of India, New Delhi.
8. NSSO, "Employment and Unemployment Surveys in India", Ministry of Statistics and
Program Implementation,
9. Basu, Kaushik (2002), "Ideology, Economics and Labour Market Policy"
10. Basu, Kaushik, and Tzannatos, Zafiris, (2003), "The Global Child Labour Problem: What Do
We Know and What Can We Do"?
11. Burra, Neera (2005), "Crusading for Children in India's Informal Economy", Economic and
Political Weekly, December, 3.
12. Grootaert, C and R. Kanbur (1995), "Child labor: An Economic Perspective", International
Labour Review, Vol. 134, No. 2, pp 187-203.


6.1 Introduction
6.2 Objectives
6.3 Education in Pre-Independent India - Significant recommendations of Commissions
and Committees.
6.4 Education in Post-Independent India - Significant recommendations of Commissions
and Committees.
6.5 National Policy of Education-1986.
6.6 National Policy of Education-1986 and POA 1992.
6.7 Universalization of Elementary Education- SSA, RTE ACT 2009, RMSA, MHRD and
Elementary Education.
6.8 Major functions of UGC, NUEPA, NCTE, NCERT, SCERT, and TANSCHE in relation to
the Development of Education.


1. The Sew Encyclopedia Britannica, Helen Hemingway: Benton Publishers, 1931,
Vol. 6. P.319.
2. R.S. Sharma. "Class formation and the Material Bases in Upper Gangetic Basin" (1000-
500 BC), Indian Historical Review, 1985, Vol.II, No.I, PP.l-13. The New Encyclopedia
Britannica, Op.Cit., P.319.
3. The Sew Encyclopedia Britannica, Op.Cit., P. 319.
4. International Encyclopedia of Higher Education, London: Jossey Bass Publishers, 1978,
Vol. 5, P.132.
5. The Sew Encyclopedia Britannica, Op.Cit., PP. 319-320.
6. R.S. Sharma, Indian Feudalism (300 AD to 1200 AD)
7. F.E. Keay, A History of Education in India, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1972, PP.
8. I.P. Naik, Equality, Quality and Quantity, Bombay: Allied Publishers, 1975, P.l.
9. P. Naik and Syed Nurullah, A Student's History of Education, Delhi: MacMillan, 1972,
P.2, Ibid., P.24, Ibid. PP.24-25, Ibid., P.25, Ibid., P.27, Ibid., P.101.
10. Education Policy in India, Warren Hastings, Calcutta: Nova Prakash. I4, S7 PP.1-5.
11. Saikia, Dr. S.(1998) History of Education in India, Publishers Mani Manik Prakash.
12. Annual Report 1992-93, Ministry of Human Resource Development.
13. Baruah K.C. and Dr. Sharma M.M., “A New Refresher Course in History of
Education in Indian”, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra.
14. Chaube, S.P.: History and Problems of Indian Education, Vinod Pustak Mandir, Agra


7.1 Introduction
7.2 Objectives
7.3 Community Schools
7.4 Distance Education - Need, Objectives and Features
7.5 Open Learning and Barriers to Learning
7.6 Open School System
7.7 Open University and the Major Functions of DEB/DEC
7.8 School for the Challenged - Adopting Instruction
7.9 Globalization / Liberalization in Education


1. Hord, S. M. (1997). Professional learning communities: What are they and why are they
important? Issues. . . about Change, 6(1), 1-8.
2. Sergiovanni, T. J. (1994). Building The community in Schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
3. American Association of University Professors (1999). Statement on Distance Education.
June 1999.
4. Beaudoin, M. (1990). The instructor’s changing role in distance education. The American
Journal of Distance Education, 4(2):21-29.
5. Beaudoin, M. F. (2003). Distance education leadership: An appraisal of research and
practice. In M. G. Moore & W.G. Anderson (Eds.), Handbook of Distance Education
(PP. 519-530). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

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