What is Computer Software and Hardware? Types of Computer Software and Hardwares - Learn Computer Basics Online Free

What is Computer Software and Hardware? Types of Computer Software and Hardwares - Learn Computer Basics Online Free


Software (Meaning)
What does computer Software mean?
A computer is the combination of hardware and software. Only with hardware a computer cannot do Anything on its own. It must be instructed to do a desired job. Hence it is necessary to specify a Sequence of instructions that a computer perform to solve a problem. Such a sequence of instructions Written in a language that can be understood by a computer is called a computer program. With Software, a computer can store, retrieve, solve different types of problems, create friendly environment To work with. In order to make the computer workable there also has to be sets of instructions which Make these different parts of hardware work. These sets of instructions are called computer programs (software).


Computer software is normally classified into two broad categories:
(a) Application software and
(b) Systems software.
  
(A) Application software -  also known as application package, is a set of one or more programs designed to carry out operations for a specified job for the user. Suppose you are to maintain the accounts of your organization so you need to use a software that will allow you to maintain accounts for this purpose you can use Tally, fact etc. Here Tally, Fact etc. are the application softwares. In this way word, excel etc. also are the application softwares. Application softwares are not absolutely essential to run a computer.

(B) System software -  also known as a systems package, is a set of one or more programs, designed to control the overall operations of a computer system. These programs do not solve specific problems.
They are general programs written to assist humans in the use of a computer system by performing tasks, such as controlling all of the operations.

Types of System Software -
System software consists of
(1) Operating system
(2) Translator programs (e.g. Compiler, Interpreter etc.)


(1)Operating System is a program that controls the entire operation of the computer and any devices that are attached to it. Although it may not be obvious to the casual user to a computer, the operating system runs in a computer all the time from the moment it is switched on until the computer is switched off. An operating system (OS) is an integrated set of programs that is used to manage the various resources and overall operation of a computer system. It is designed to support the activities of a computer installation. Its prime objectives are to improve the performance and efficiency of a computer system and increase facility. Operating system is responsible for the smooth and efficient operation of the entire computer system. Ms-Dos, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows XP, Windows ME, Unix, Linux etc. are the examples of operating Systems.


  1. Processor management, Operating system assigns processors to different tasks to be performed.
  2. Memory Management, Allocation of main memory and other storage areas to the system programs as well as user programs and data
  3. Input /Output management that are the coordination and assignment of the different input and output devices while one or more programs are being executed.
  4. File management, that is, the storage of files on various storage devices and the transfer of these files from one storage device to another. It also allows all files to be easily changed and modified through the use of text editors or some other file manipulation routines.
  5. Interpretation of commands and instructions.
  6. It provides a platform so that all applications can be run.

Computer Hardware - Hardware is the physical components of a computer it includes all visible parts attached to a computer like keyboard, Mouse, Monitor, and Printer etc.

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